Photo: Johann Schumacher/Vireo

Priority Bird

Common Tern

Sterna hirundo

One of four very similar terns on this continent. The species lives up to its name as a "common" tern mainly in the northeast; over much of the continent, it is outnumbered by the similar Forster's Tern. Also widespread in the Old World.
Conservation status Northeastern populations probably much lower than they were historically. Numbers reduced by plume hunters in late 1800s, increased again with protection early in 20th century, then declined again as populations of predatory large gulls increased in that area. Coastal Common Terns are more and more concentrated in a few well-protected colonies. Some inland populations are declining as well.
Family Gulls and Terns
Habitat Lakes, ocean, bays, beaches. Wide range of aquatic habitats in summer, both coastal and inland waters in low-lying, open country, where shallow waters for fishing are close to undisturbed flat islands or beaches for nesting. Winters mostly along coastlines in warm subtropical or tropical waters.
One of four very similar terns on this continent. The species lives up to its name as a "common" tern mainly in the northeast; over much of the continent, it is outnumbered by the similar Forster's Tern. Also widespread in the Old World.
Photo Gallery
  • adult, breeding
  • immature (1st winter)
  • juvenile
  • adult, nonbreeding
  • adult, breeding
Feeding Behavior

Forages mostly by flying over water, hovering, and plunging to catch prey below surface. Sometimes dips down to take items from surface of water, or pursues flying insects in the air. Occasionally steals food from other terns.


Eggs

1-3. Variable, buff to pale blue or olive, marked with brown and black. Incubation is by both parents (female may do more), 21-25 days. Young: Leave nest after a few days but remain nearby, are fed by both parents. Age at first flight about 22-28 days; may remain with parents another 2 months or more. One brood per year, rarely two.


Young

Leave nest after a few days but remain nearby, are fed by both parents. Age at first flight about 22-28 days; may remain with parents another 2 months or more. One brood per year, rarely two.

Diet

Mostly fish. Feeds on a wide variety of small fish, focussing on whatever types most easily available, sometimes concentrating on shrimp instead. Also eats other crustaceans, insects, marine worms, small squid, leeches, marine worms.


Nesting

Usually first breeds at age 3-4 years. Nests in colonies, sometimes in isolated pairs. In aerial courtship, groups and pairs perform high flights. Male may fly over colony carrying fish; female follows. On ground, pair postures, bows, struts in circles; male presents fish to female. Nest site is on bare ground or surrounded by low vegetation; sometimes on floating mat of dead vegetation. Nest (built by both sexes) is shallow scrape in soil, usually lined with bits of plant material and debris.

Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.

Migration

After breeding, may move a short distance north before beginning southward migration. Almost none actually overwinters in North America, although fall migrants may linger to the beginning of January. Winter range is along tropical coasts as far south as Peru and Argentina. Stray Common Terns in Alaska are from a dark-billed race in eastern Asia.

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Migration

After breeding, may move a short distance north before beginning southward migration. Almost none actually overwinters in North America, although fall migrants may linger to the beginning of January. Winter range is along tropical coasts as far south as Peru and Argentina. Stray Common Terns in Alaska are from a dark-billed race in eastern Asia.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon
Songs and Calls
Kip-kip-kip; also tee-aar.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
Learn more about this sound collection.