Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
Photo: Alan Kolnik/Audubon Photography Awards
|Conservation status||Numbers dropped in mid-20th century, possibly as a result of DDT and other pesticides in the food chain, then recovered somewhat through early 1980s. Since that time, counts of migrants in the east have shown significant declines again.|
|Family||Hawks and Eagles|
|Habitat||Mixed or coniferous forests, open deciduous woodlands, thickets, edges. Usually nests in groves of coniferous trees in mixed woods, sometimes in dense deciduous trees or in pure coniferous forest with brush or clearings nearby. In winter found in any kind of forest or brushy area, but tends to avoid open country.|
Hunts mostly by perching inside foliage and waiting for small birds to approach, or by approaching stealthily through dense cover, then bursting forth with incredibly swift flight to capture prey in its talons. Sometimes hunts by flying rapidly among the trees or low over the ground, threading its way around obstacles, taking prey by sudden surprise.
Usually 4-5, sometimes 3, rarely 1-6. Bluish-white fading to white, blotched and washed with brown. Incubation is mostly by female, 30-35 days. Male brings food to female on nest, and may sit on eggs while she is eating. Young: Female remains near young for first 1-2 weeks after they hatch; male brings food, female feeds it to nestlings. Young may move out of nest onto nearby branches after about 3-4 weeks, can fly at about 5-6 weeks.
Female remains near young for first 1-2 weeks after they hatch; male brings food, female feeds it to nestlings. Young may move out of nest onto nearby branches after about 3-4 weeks, can fly at about 5-6 weeks.
Mostly small birds. Feeds mostly on birds of about sparrow size up to robin size, sometimes up to the size of quail. Also eats small numbers of rodents, bats, squirrels, lizards, frogs, snakes, large insects.
In courtship, pairs may circle above the forest, calling; fluffy white under tail coverts may be spread out to side during some displays. Male may fly high and dive steeply into woods. Nest site is very well concealed, usually in a dense conifer (such as spruce or fir) within forest or thick grove; usually 20-60' above ground, but can be lower or higher in suitably dense cover. Sometimes builds on top of old nest of squirrel or crow. Nest is a platform of sticks, lined with bark strips, twigs, grass. Both sexes bring nest material, female may do most of building.
Some in northwest may be permanent residents, but most are migratory. Large numbers may concentrate at some points along coasts or ridges during migration, especially in certain weather conditions, but the birds are traveling as individuals, not in flocks.
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