Photo: Michael L. Baird/Flickr Creative Commons

Snowy Owl

Bubo scandiacus

A large, powerful owl of the high Arctic tundra, colored for camouflage during northern winters. In summer it may be nomadic, concentrating and nesting where there are high populations of the small rodents called lemmings. At other times it takes a wide variety of prey, including birds as big as geese. During some winters, large numbers of Snowy Owls appear south of the Canadian border; those that stop in towns and cities invariably cause a stir and attract media attention.
Conservation status Formerly many were shot during southward invasions in winter. Most North American breeding areas are remote from effects of human disturbance, but climate change is likely to affect many Arctic birds. Has declined in parts of breeding range in northern Europe.
Family Owls
Habitat Prairies, fields, marshes, beaches, dunes; in summer, arctic tundra. Breeds on tundra, from just north of treeline to the northernmost land. Prefers very open tundra, either in hilly country or wetter areas near coast. Winters in open country, including prairies, farmland, coastal marshes, beaches, large airports.
A large, powerful owl of the high Arctic tundra, colored for camouflage during northern winters. In summer it may be nomadic, concentrating and nesting where there are high populations of the small rodents called lemmings. At other times it takes a wide variety of prey, including birds as big as geese. During some winters, large numbers of Snowy Owls appear south of the Canadian border; those that stop in towns and cities invariably cause a stir and attract media attention.
Photo Gallery
  • adult male
  • adult female
  • adult female or 1st yr male
  • adult female or 1st yr male
  • juvenile
  • adult
Feeding Behavior

Often hunts by day. Usually hunts by watching for prey from a perch, then pursuing it in swift flight and catching prey in talons. Sometimes seeks prey by flying low, or by hovering and watching ground. May locate prey by sight or sound.


Eggs

3-11. Clutch size quite variable, with more eggs laid in years when prey is abundant. Eggs whitish, becoming nest-stained. Incubation is by female only, 31-33 days; male brings food to incubating female. Eggs hatch at intervals, so that female will be caring for first young while still incubating last eggs. Young: Female remains with young; male brings food, female takes it and feeds them. Young may leave nest after 2-3 weeks, but not able to fly well until about 7 weeks; fed by parents up to at least 9-10 weeks.


Young

Female remains with young; male brings food, female takes it and feeds them. Young may leave nest after 2-3 weeks, but not able to fly well until about 7 weeks; fed by parents up to at least 9-10 weeks.

Diet

Varied, includes lemmings, plus other mammals and birds. In Arctic, may feed almost exclusively on lemmings when these are available. Otherwise, feeds on wide variety of prey. Takes mammals including rabbits, hares, voles, ground squirrels. In coastal areas may feed heavily on birds, including ducks, geese, grebes, murrelets, and sometimes songbirds. Also may eat fish, carrion.


Nesting

In many regions of Arctic, may breed mainly in years when lemmings are abundant, failing to nest at all when lemmings are scarce. Male owl defends territory with deep hooting in early spring. In courtship, male flies with deep, slow wingbeats, often carrying a lemming in his bill; landing near female, he leans forward, partly raising wings. Nest: Chooses a raised site, on top of mound or ridge in hilly country, or on hummock in low-lying areas, always with good visibility in very open tundra. Site may be used for several years. Nest (built by female) is simple depression in tundra, with no lining added.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.

Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

Migration

Migration not well understood. Nomadic in breeding season, concentrating where prey abundant. Numbers moving south in winter quite variable from year to year, probably relating to populations of prey in the north.

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Migration

Migration not well understood. Nomadic in breeding season, concentrating where prey abundant. Numbers moving south in winter quite variable from year to year, probably relating to populations of prey in the north.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon
Songs and Calls
Usually silent; hoarse croak and shrill whistle on breeding grounds.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
Learn more about this sound collection.

How climate change could affect this bird's range

In the broadest and most detailed study of its kind, Audubon scientists have used hundreds of thousands of citizen-science observations and sophisticated climate models to predict how birds in the U.S. and Canada will react to climate change.

Learn more

Read more: climate.audubon.org
Owls

Snowy Owl

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season.

More on reading these maps.

Each map is a visual guide to where a particular bird species may find the climate conditions it needs to survive in the future. We call this the bird’s “climatic range.”

The colors indicate the season in which the bird may find suitable conditions— blue for winter, yellow for summer (breeding), and green for where they overlap (indicating their presence year-round).

The darker the shaded area, the more likely it is the bird species will find suitable climate conditions to survive there.

The outline of the approximate current range for each season remains fixed in each frame, allowing you to compare how the range will expand, contract, or shift in the future.

The first frame of the animation shows where the bird can find a suitable climate today (based on data from 2000). The next three frames predict where this bird’s suitable climate may shift in the future—one frame each for 2020, 2050, and 2080.

You can play or pause the animation with the orange button in the lower left, or select an individual frame to study by clicking on its year.

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season. More on reading these maps.
Winter
Summer

Winter Range
Summer Range
Both Seasons
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