Photo: Steve Young/Vireo

Priority Bird

Yellow-billed Loon

Gavia adamsii

A big dagger-billed diving bird of wilderness waters. Closely related to Common Loon but even larger (the largest member of the family) and more northerly. Summers on high Arctic tundra, winters off wild northern shores, and occurs only in very small numbers south of Canada. Its great size, remote range, and general rarity give the Yellow-billed Loon an aura of mystery for many birders.
Conservation status World population has been estimated at under 10,000, with half of these in Alaska. Vulnerable to oil spills and other pollution in the Arctic, and to the effects of climate change.
Family Loons
Habitat Tundra lakes in summer; coastal waters in winter. Breeds in high Arctic tundra region, often on large lakes but also on smaller lakes if good feeding areas are nearby; may fly up to 5 miles from nest site to feeding areas on rivers, coastal lagoons. In winter on ocean, generally on bays, inlets, among island groups; rarely on large lakes in interior.
A big dagger-billed diving bird of wilderness waters. Closely related to Common Loon but even larger (the largest member of the family) and more northerly. Summers on high Arctic tundra, winters off wild northern shores, and occurs only in very small numbers south of Canada. Its great size, remote range, and general rarity give the Yellow-billed Loon an aura of mystery for many birders.
Photo Gallery
  • adult, breeding
  • adult, nonbreeding
  • juvenile  (1st winter)
Feeding Behavior

Loons do their foraging by diving from the surface and swimming underwater. They often swim along the surface with their heads partly submerged, peering about underwater, watching for prey before they dive. They are propelled mainly by their feet, but may sometimes use their wings also when turning or in bursts of speed. Loons find their food by sight.


Eggs

2. Brown or olive, spotted with blackish-brown. Incubation period 27-29 days; both parents incubate. Young: Leave nest 1-2 days after hatching. Adults very aggressive in defense of downy young. Young are fed by both parents, sometimes ride on parents' backs. Second chick of brood often disappears a few days after hatching. Age at first flight not known, probably about 12 weeks. One brood per year.


Young

Leave nest 1-2 days after hatching. Adults very aggressive in defense of downy young. Young are fed by both parents, sometimes ride on parents' backs. Second chick of brood often disappears a few days after hatching. Age at first flight not known, probably about 12 weeks. One brood per year.

Diet

Probably mostly fish. Diet not well known. Apparently feeds mainly on small to medium-sized fish, including sculpin, tomcod, rock cod; also crustaceans and mollusks, probably some insects in summer. Young may eat some plant material.


Nesting

May mate for life. In courtship displays, pairs dip bills in water repeatedly; splash-dive and swim past each other underwater. Nest: Male may select site, both sexes probably help build nest. Site is always very near water, on island or shore, and may be partly hidden by surrounding vegetation. Nest, often re-used from year to year, is a mound of tundra vegetation with depression at center; sometimes turf is overturned to form a mud foundation.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.

Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

Migration

Most winter in limited area of southern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, but route between wintering and breeding areas unknown; may follow coast around Alaska rather than flying overland. In recent years, single birds (usually immature) have been found wintering on reservoirs and lakes in interior as far east as Illinois and Arkansas, as far south as Arizona and Texas.

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Migration

Most winter in limited area of southern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, but route between wintering and breeding areas unknown; may follow coast around Alaska rather than flying overland. In recent years, single birds (usually immature) have been found wintering on reservoirs and lakes in interior as far east as Illinois and Arkansas, as far south as Arizona and Texas.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon
Songs and Calls
Yodeling calls similar to those of Common Loon but louder and harsher; generally less vocal.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
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How climate change could affect this bird's range

In the broadest and most detailed study of its kind, Audubon scientists have used hundreds of thousands of citizen-science observations and sophisticated climate models to predict how birds in the U.S. and Canada will react to climate change.

Learn more

Read more: climate.audubon.org
Duck-like Birds Loons

Yellow-billed Loon

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season.

More on reading these maps.

Each map is a visual guide to where a particular bird species may find the climate conditions it needs to survive in the future. We call this the bird’s “climatic range.”

The colors indicate the season in which the bird may find suitable conditions— blue for winter, yellow for summer (breeding), and green for where they overlap (indicating their presence year-round).

The darker the shaded area, the more likely it is the bird species will find suitable climate conditions to survive there.

The outline of the approximate current range for each season remains fixed in each frame, allowing you to compare how the range will expand, contract, or shift in the future.

The first frame of the animation shows where the bird can find a suitable climate today (based on data from 2000). The next three frames predict where this bird’s suitable climate may shift in the future—one frame each for 2020, 2050, and 2080.

You can play or pause the animation with the orange button in the lower left, or select an individual frame to study by clicking on its year.

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season. More on reading these maps.
Winter
Summer

Winter Range
Summer Range
Both Seasons
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