This site includes the Happy Valley Wildlife Management Area
(WMA) and surrounding forests. It supports a variety of ecological
communities, plants, and wildlife. The area is relatively flat and is
drained by two watersheds, the Little Salmon River and the Oswego
River, both of which eventually drain into Lake Ontario. The site is
characterized by second growth northern hardwood forests, dominated
by red maple (Acer rubrum) and mixed hardwood-conifer stands. Two
significant ecological communities, spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata),
and four rare plants were documented during a 1994 biodiversity
inventory. The fens at St. Mary?s Pond and Long Pond are among the
finest examples of this rare community in the state.

Ornithological Summary

This area supports characteristic breeding bird communities of
forested wetlands and mixed deciduous/coniferous forests. Breeding
species include Pied-billed Grebes (confirmed breeder), Sharp-shinned
Hawk (confirmed breeder), Northern Goshawk (confirmed pair),
Broad-winged Hawk (confirmed pair), Ruffed Grouse, American
Woodcock, Black-billed Cuckoo, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Barred
Owl (confirmed breeder), Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher,
Great Crested Flycatcher, Blue-headed Vireo, Veery, Bicknell?s
Thrush, Wood Thrush, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Black-throated
Blue Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, American Redstart,
Ovenbird, Canada Warbler, Scarlet Tanager, Rose-breasted Grosbeak,
and Purple Finch. Red-shouldered Hawks breed here in relatively
high densities (average of 11 nesting attempts each yea

Conservation Issues

This area is currently managed primarily for wildlife conservation and
wildlife related recreational activities (hunting and birding). Logging
also takes place at the site; logging plans should take Red-shouldered
Hawk nest locations into consideration. Inventory and monitoring of
Red-shouldered Hawks and other at-risk species are needed.

Stay abreast of Audubon

Our email newsletter shares the latest programs and initiatives.