Nearshore waters of Lake Michigan from Benzie to Allegan Counties.
Concentration of one or more species. While this is a qualifying number for global status, the data are only available for one year. (Spring migration, 1994) Therefore, it is rated as continental pending receipt of more data.
Wind turbine development of the open water areas of Lake Michigan is a large impending threat which needs immediate assessment. Data clarifying how far into the lake these birds are congregating are urgently needed. Invasive fishes and molluscs continue to present a constant threat to the stability of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Botulism is an additional threat, killing many thousands of waterbirds in recent years.
Industrial transport, recreational use (boating), commercial fishing, waterfowl hunting.