The Long Cane District is part of the Sumter National Forest, encompassing 119,076 acres in Abbeville, Edigefield, Greenwood, McCormick, and Saluda counties. The Long Cane rests in the Peidmont Phsiographic Province and as such much of the land is recovering forest. Southern yellow pines (loblolly, shortleaf, veiginia) are the predominant forest tree species in uplands. Steep hardwood bluffs, flood plain forest, and small marshy areas border creeks such as Steven's and Turkey creeks, two of the larger lotic cyctems in the forest. Basic Mesic cove communities, which are rare in SC, exist along Johns Creek and the Turkey/Stevens Creek Corridors on the Long Cane. The Long Cane is bordered to the west by the Savannah River, which forms the interstate line between Georgia and South Carolina. The importance of the area's inclusion into the IBA program in SC is its function as an island in a rapidly developing peidmont landscape. The Long Cane's potentail for re-establishing expansive areas of pine woodlands and peidmont praries in assition to its rarer components such as basic coves means that the area harbrs birds and other flora and fauna that are unique within peidmont landscape. If linkages and large, contiguous tracts of habitat are to be conserved for birds and other species, the Long Cane Ranger District of the Sumter National Forest should be a part of that planning process. The Ranger's Office is located on the outskirts of the city of Edgefield. The forest lies in the western peidmont in Edgefield, McCormick, Abbeville, Greenwood, and Saluda counties. Large portions of the forest are accessible from HWY 28 along the western boundary. I-378 and 221 also provide access points in McCormick and Greenwood counties. HWY 230 is the most accessible gateway to the forest from points south (Augusta, GA).

Ornithological Summary

The Long Cane Ranger District is ornithologically significant in three areas: Species of Concern, Watch List Species and Species Assemblage Associated with a Representative, Rare
or Threatened Habitat Type. These species are : Northern Bobwhite, Loggerhead Shrike, Whip-poor-will, Bachman's Sparrow, Wood Thrush. The data was gathered through Breeding Bird Surveys from 1966-2007. The numbers of birds lister are average numbers per survey route.

Conservation Issues

Recreational overuse, Tree Planting, and Forest Succession are the major threats to the balance of the Long Cane District of the Sumter National Forest. Secondary threats are diseases to tress, invasive plant species, such as Chinese privet, Russian olive and Japanese honeysuckle, which present challenges for native plants ad perhaps bird species diversity, especially along riparian corridors. Open habitats, such as pine woodlands and piedmont prairies and several of the species associated with the habitat, Northern Bobwhite, Field Sparrow, Eastern Meadowlark, may become rare if pine forests are not thinned and prescribed burning is not implemented judiciously. Historical sites are undergoing looting pressure and plowed wildlife food plats may expose artifacts to looters. Drought, Excessive soil erosion, are deforestation are also secondary threats.
Activities to increase oak species include prescriptions for commercial thinning. These activities are being implemented to restore oak-hickory and pine/hardwood forests. Areas with invasive species have been treated with herbicides in some compartments. Plans for restoring 9964 acres of piedmont pine woodlands have been proposed. Measures are in place ot implement prescribed fire to appropriately restore and maintain pyroclimax communities. Some species that apear to be declining regionally (e.g. Northern Bobwhite and Brow-headed Nuthatch) seem to be doing well on the Long Cane District.
The SC Native Plant Society, PO Box 491, Norris, SC 29667, is an advocate for this site.


Sumter National Forest's Long Cane District is owned by:
USDA Forest Service
810 Buncombe Street
Edgevield, SC 29824


The Long Cane lies in the Piedmont ecoregions defined as outer piedmont and Carolina Slate belt. The site is dominated by planted and naturally regenerated southern yellow pines, primarily loblolly. Steven?s Creek and Turkey Creek are the two major watersheds on the Long Cane. They ultimately drain into the Savannah River Basin which empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Major impounded systems include Lakes Russell and Thurmond. The rolling uplands of the piedmont landscape are a mosaic of agricultural land and managed woodland, with a history of clearing hardwood-dominated forests occupy relatively narrow floodplains and scattered upland sites, while pine and pine-hardwood forests occupy the majority of forested upland sites. Summer = 90-70 degrees Fahrenheit; Winter = 55-34 degrees Fahrenheit. Average precipitation 40-50 inches/year. Soils are 1 degree Ultisols with mod. To extreme erosion.

Pine Snake (SC highest conservation priority)
Northern Yellow Bat (SC highest conservation priority)
Tiger Salamander (SC highest conservation priority)
Webster?s Salamander (SC highest conservation priority)
Southern Hognose Snake (SC highest conservation priority)
Prairie Crayfish (Distocambarus crockery) (unique upland burrowing species)
Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) (state record tree)
Florida gooseberry (Ribes echinellum) (federally endangered)
Carolina heelsplitter (Lasmigona decorata) (federally endangered)
Georgia aster (Symphyotrichum georgianum) (candidate for federal listing)
Sensitive nodding trillium (Trillium rugelii) (sensitive)
Indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa) (sensitive)
Lanceleaf trillium (Trillium lancifolium) (sensitive)

Land Use

The Long Cane District of Sumter National Forest is used primarily for Forestry and Hunting and secondarily for Recreation/Tourism and Wildlife Conservation/Natural Area.

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