Most of this large landscape is managed under the jurisdiction of the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest. The entire Toiyabe Range (a significant portion is include here) is 126 miles long, with 50 contiguous miles where the center spine never drops below 10,000 feet. Extensive Montane Shrub and pinyon-juniper communities are interspersed with mountain mahogany, with limited aspen and limber pine groves. The highest elevations are covered by a mixture of low sagebrush and an alpine flora of fewer than 50 species. The range is wet by Great Basin standards, with streams like the North and South Twin rivers, Peavine Creek, Stewart Creek, Reese River, Big Creek and Kingston Creek all with examples of lush riparian areas with an abundance of shrubs and trees including chokecherry, elderberry, red osier dogwood, cottonwood, aspen and water birch. The IBA encompass a portion of the Arc Dome Wilderness Area, the largest in the state at 115,000 acres. The Arc Dome crest is at 11,788 feet, the tenth highest summit in Nevada.
The site supports one of the largest Greater Sage-Grouse populations in the state, with an interesting seasonal migration pattern that sees them using the upper elevations of the range in summer and moving down to the Reese River Valley in winter. The site also contains extensive mountain shrub communities, and some of the much more limited montane parkland habitat type, and most of the species of concern associated with these habitat types.