Photo: Courtesy of Erin Strasser

Baird's Sparrow

Ammodramus bairdii

A grassland sparrow, breeding on the northern Great Plains, wintering locally in the Southwest. Audubon discovered this bird in 1843, and named it for the young Spencer Baird (who would later become a leading ornithologist). The bird then dropped out of sight, and was not seen again for almost 30 years. This kind of disappearing act seems appropriate for Baird's Sparrow, which runs through the grass like a mouse, almost never perching up in the open, and is very difficult to flush. On the nesting grounds, however, males will give a surprisingly musical song, much more attractive than those of related sparrows.
Conservation status Originally was a very common bird within its range, now uncommon and local. Loss of habitat on summer range (to farming) and winter range (to overgrazing) probably played a part in decline.
Family New World Sparrows
Habitat Mostly native prairies. Breeds mainly in northern prairies with fairly tall grass and with scattered tall weeds or low bushes; also sometimes nests in fields of wheat or other crops. In migration and winter found mostly on shortgrass prairie and in weedy fields.
A grassland sparrow, breeding on the northern Great Plains, wintering locally in the Southwest. Audubon discovered this bird in 1843, and named it for the young Spencer Baird (who would later become a leading ornithologist). The bird then dropped out of sight, and was not seen again for almost 30 years. This kind of disappearing act seems appropriate for Baird's Sparrow, which runs through the grass like a mouse, almost never perching up in the open, and is very difficult to flush. On the nesting grounds, however, males will give a surprisingly musical song, much more attractive than those of related sparrows.
Photo Gallery
  • adult
  • adult
Feeding Behavior

Forages on the ground, moving about rather slowly among grass clumps. Almost always forages alone.


Eggs

4-5, sometimes 3-6. Grayish white, heavily spotted with reddish brown. Incubation is by the female only, about 11-12 days. Young: Both parents feed young (but the female may do more at first). Young leave the nest after about 8-10 days, before they are able to fly, and are fed by their parents for at least another 1-2 weeks. 1 brood per year.


Young

Both parents feed young (but the female may do more at first). Young leave the nest after about 8-10 days, before they are able to fly, and are fed by their parents for at least another 1-2 weeks. 1 brood per year.

Diet

Mostly insects and seeds. Diet varies with season. In summer feeds mainly on insects, including grasshoppers, caterpillars, moths, beetles, leafhoppers, and others, as well as spiders and seeds. Young birds are fed mostly grasshoppers and caterpillars. Diet at other seasons is mostly seeds of weeds and grasses.


Nesting

May nest in small, loose colonies. To defend nesting territory, male sings from the top of a tall grass stem, weed, or low bush. Courtship display of male may involve walking on ground, fluttering one wing at a time over his back, repeatedly bowing. Nest site is on the ground in a grassy area, well hidden and hard to find. Usually in a slight depression so the rim of the nest is level with the ground, sometimes tucked under a dense overhanging grass clump or built within the base of such a clump. Nest (probably built by the female) is a shallow open cup made of dry grass, sometimes with some weeds added; may be lined with fine grass, animal hair, moss.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.

Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

Migration

Seldom detected during migration. Arrives on wintering areas during October and November, departs during April. Extremely rare stray east or west of normal migration route through prairies.

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Migration

Seldom detected during migration. Arrives on wintering areas during October and November, departs during April. Extremely rare stray east or west of normal migration route through prairies.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon
Songs and Calls
3 short notes followed by a musical trill on a lower pitch.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
Learn more about this sound collection.

How climate change could affect this bird's range

In the broadest and most detailed study of its kind, Audubon scientists have used hundreds of thousands of citizen-science observations and sophisticated climate models to predict how birds in the U.S. and Canada will react to climate change.

Learn more

Read more: climate.audubon.org
New World Sparrows Perching Birds

Baird's Sparrow

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season.

More on reading these maps.

Each map is a visual guide to where a particular bird species may find the climate conditions it needs to survive in the future. We call this the bird’s “climatic range.”

The colors indicate the season in which the bird may find suitable conditions— blue for winter, yellow for summer (breeding), and green for where they overlap (indicating their presence year-round).

The darker the shaded area, the more likely it is the bird species will find suitable climate conditions to survive there.

The outline of the approximate current range for each season remains fixed in each frame, allowing you to compare how the range will expand, contract, or shift in the future.

The first frame of the animation shows where the bird can find a suitable climate today (based on data from 2000). The next three frames predict where this bird’s suitable climate may shift in the future—one frame each for 2020, 2050, and 2080.

You can play or pause the animation with the orange button in the lower left, or select an individual frame to study by clicking on its year.

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season. More on reading these maps.
Winter
Summer

Winter Range
Summer Range
Both Seasons
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