Photo: Dale & Marian Zimmerman/Vireo

Virginia's Warbler

Oreothlypis virginiae

A rather plain warbler that spends the summer in brush and chaparral on dry mountainsides in the West. The dense low nature of its habitat often makes Virginia's Warbler hard to observe, but its presence is revealed by its simple trilled song and by its hard callnote, tsick. Although it is common over much of the West, its nesting behavior remains poorly known, partly because its nest is extremely difficult to find.
Conservation status Still common, but surveys suggest declining populations.
Family Wood Warblers
Habitat Oak canyons, brushy slopes, pinyons. Breeds on dry mountainsides in scrub oak, chaparral, pinyon-juniper woods, or other low brushy habitats. In some areas, prefers mountain mahogany and Gambel oak. In migration, frequently in woods along streams. In winter in Mexico, at mid-elevations in dry scrub.
A rather plain warbler that spends the summer in brush and chaparral on dry mountainsides in the West. The dense low nature of its habitat often makes Virginia's Warbler hard to observe, but its presence is revealed by its simple trilled song and by its hard callnote, tsick. Although it is common over much of the West, its nesting behavior remains poorly known, partly because its nest is extremely difficult to find.
Photo Gallery
  • adult male
  • adult female
  • adult male
  • adult female
Feeding Behavior

During the breeding season, forages mostly by taking insects among foliage and twigs. Also observed feeding on the ground, and catching flying insects in mid-air. May do much probing of buds and flowers. In winter in Mexico, feeds low, mostly within 15' of the ground.


Eggs

4, sometimes 3-5. White to creamy with fine reddish brown spots. Incubation probably by female. Eggs and young frequently fall prey to jays or snakes. Apparently nests are only rarely parasitized by cowbirds. Young: Fed by both parents. Age at leaving nest is not well known. Possibly 2 broods per year.


Young

Fed by both parents. Age at leaving nest is not well known. Possibly 2 broods per year.

Diet

Presumably mostly insects. Diet is not known in detail, presumed to eat a wide variety of small insects, like other warblers.


Nesting

Breeding behavior is not well known. Arriving on breeding grounds in April and early May, the male sings from perches on exposed dead limbs. Pairs begin nesting by early June. Males defend large territories. Nest: Usually very difficult to find. Placed under grass tufts in hollow of decaying leaves on ground covered by dense brush. Frequently on steep hillside or talus slope. Nest (probably built by female) is open cup of coarse grass, bark strips, roots, and moss, lined with animal hair and moss.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.

Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

Migration

Probably migrates mostly at night, like other warblers. Southward migration begins quite early, the birds mostly disappearing from the breeding grounds in August.

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Migration

Probably migrates mostly at night, like other warblers. Southward migration begins quite early, the birds mostly disappearing from the breeding grounds in August.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon
Songs and Calls
Song a musical seedle-seedle-seedle, sweet, sweet. Call is a sharp plink.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
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How climate change could affect this bird's range

In the broadest and most detailed study of its kind, Audubon scientists have used hundreds of thousands of citizen-science observations and sophisticated climate models to predict how birds in the U.S. and Canada will react to climate change.

Learn more

Read more: climate.audubon.org
Wood Warblers Perching Birds

Virginia's Warbler

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season.

More on reading these maps.

Each map is a visual guide to where a particular bird species may find the climate conditions it needs to survive in the future. We call this the bird’s “climatic range.”

The colors indicate the season in which the bird may find suitable conditions— blue for winter, yellow for summer (breeding), and green for where they overlap (indicating their presence year-round).

The darker the shaded area, the more likely it is the bird species will find suitable climate conditions to survive there.

The outline of the approximate current range for each season remains fixed in each frame, allowing you to compare how the range will expand, contract, or shift in the future.

The first frame of the animation shows where the bird can find a suitable climate today (based on data from 2000). The next three frames predict where this bird’s suitable climate may shift in the future—one frame each for 2020, 2050, and 2080.

You can play or pause the animation with the orange button in the lower left, or select an individual frame to study by clicking on its year.

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season. More on reading these maps.
Winter
Summer

Winter Range
Summer Range
Both Seasons
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