The 122nd Christmas Bird Count in Florida

Bill Pranty and Bruce Anderson


During the 122nd season, 82 Christmas Bird Counts were conducted in Florida. The Big Cypress and Lake Placid counts were not run, the latter over lingering COVID-19 concerns. Not run for the past several seasons and now removed from the roster of active CBCs were counts at Choctawhatchee River, Christmas, and Lake Seminole–Torreya. A new CBC established at Kissimmee Prairie/DeLuca in Osceola and Okeechobee counties contains some of the most significant conservation areas in the region—and immediately set a high bar by tallying the nation’s high total of Eastern Meadowlarks for the 122nd season!

Florida’s 82 CBCs accounted for 9714 accepted observations of 342 taxonomic forms and 1,338,324 individuals. The latter total is more than one million individuals fewer than the past count season, mainly related to the number of Lesser Scaup found on the Cocoa CBC. The taxonomic forms comprised 276 native species or natural vagrants, the reintroduced Whooping Crane, all 15 “countable” exotics (we removed White-winged Parakeet from the list after the 121st season), 21 “non-countable” exotics, two hybrids (Blue-winged Teal × Cinnamon Teal and Mallard × Mottled Duck), one color morph (“Great White Heron”), one intergrade (“Wurdemann’s Heron”), and 21 forms not identified to species (e.g., Greater Scaup/Lesser Scaup, hummingbird species). Finally, four species (Red-throated Loon, Great Shearwater, Pomarine Jaeger, and Franklin’s Gull) were found exclusively during count-week.

Accepted species totals ranged from 19 (at Dry Tortugas N.P.) to 169 (at Gainesville; inland!). Eight other CBCs exceeded 149 “countable” species: Alafia Banks and Sarasota (165 each), West Pasco (162), Jacksonville and North Pinellas (156 each), St. Marks (153), South Brevard (152), and St. Petersburg (151). Three CBCs, including one inland (*), tallied more than 50,000 individuals: Cocoa (122,884, including 100,000 Lesser Scaup), South Brevard (63,874), and *Gainesville (54,250).

This summary follows the current taxonomy of the American Ornithological Society (formerly the American Ornithologists’ Union), so the order differs considerably from that still used by Audubon for the CBC. Rare species and extremely high numbers are excluded from this summary if details were insufficient or lacking. Bold-faced totals denote high counts since the 102nd CBC season, when BP became Florida CBC Regional Editor.

Five species were tallied on all 82 counts: Great Blue Heron, Great Egret, Belted Kingfisher, American Kestrel, and Palm Warbler. Four species exceeded 50,000 individuals statewide: Lesser Scaup (196,383), White Ibis (67,182), Laughing Gull (62,109), and Fish Crow (51,297). In contrast, 23 native species or natural vagrants were each documented by a single individual (excluding count-week birds): Greater White-fronted Goose (Pensacola), American Black Duck (St. Marks), White-winged Scoter (Sarasota), Long-tailed Duck (Merritt Island NWR), Great Cormorant (Myakka River SP), American Golden-Plover (West Palm Beach), Red Phalarope (Melrose), Parasitic Jaeger (Cocoa), Black-headed Gull (Cocoa), Smooth-billed Ani (Homestead), Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Gainesville), Cassin’s Kingbird (Homestead), Bell’s Vireo (Long Pine Key), Horned Lark (Jackson County), Purple Martin (Sarasota), Barn Swallow (Homestead), Wood Thrush (Coot Bay–Everglades NP), Sprague’s Pipit (Apalachicola–St. Vincent NWR), Lapland Longspur (Jacksonville), Swainson’s Warbler (Kendall Area), Black-throated Gray Warbler (Homestead), Clay-colored Sparrow (Econlockhatchee), and Bullock’s Oriole (Kendall Area).

The 16,734 Black-bellied Whistling-Ducks represent a reduction from this past season’s high (Gainesville’s total dropped by 75%), but a record 48 CBCs tallied them, with 2600 at Bradenton, 2000 at Gainesville, 1700 at Lake City, 1100 at Venice–Englewood, and 1000 at Alafia Banks. Zellwood-Mount Dora provided the bulk of the state’s 483 Fulvous Whistling-Ducks, with 400; others were at STA5–Clewiston (68), Clermont (14), and Lake City (1). Five Snow Geese at Gainesville were the sole CBC report. Canada Geese, largely or entirely of feral stock, totaled 2148 on 20 counts, with 800 at Jacksonville, 675 at Tallahassee, 175 at Clay County, 113 at Emeralda–Sunnyhill, and 100 at Bradenton. Exotic swans at Lakeland equaled 50 Mute, 44 Black, and one Black-necked. Egyptian Geese continue to expand their population, with 1071 individuals on 14 counts, including 325 at Kendall Area, 200 at Dade County, 161 at Stuart, 150 at West Palm Beach, and 138 at Fort Lauderdale. Muscovy Ducks numbered 5057 individuals on 56 counts, led by 725 at Kendall Area, 360 at Fort Lauderdale, 310 at Naples, and 283 at Tampa. Single male Cinnamon Teal were found at Gainesville, Merritt Island NWR, and Peace River, where a male Blue-winged Teal × Cinnamon Teal was also documented. Only one American Black Duck was tallied at St. Marks. As always, Lesser Scaup dominated the waterfowl totals, but in much smaller numbers than is often the case; 100,000 were at Cocoa, 30,000 at South Brevard, 19,000 at Merritt Island N.W.R., and 16,500 at Alafia Banks. Cedar Key accounted for 685 of the state’s 714 Greater Scaup. It was a poor winter for scoters, with 44 Black on five counts, single Surf at Daytona Beach and Melrose (inland!), and one White-winged at Sarasota. A Long-tailed Duck was at Merritt Island NWR. Highest counts of 5583 Buffleheads statewide were along the northern Gulf coast: 3600 at Cedar Key, 400 at Panacea, and 340 at Bay County. Single Common Goldeneyes were south to Cedar Key and Gainesville.


For several years, we have stressed the need to carefully examine Mallards and Mottled Ducks to determine how many of these may be hybrids (or, more accurately, backcrosses) or cannot be identified to species. The identification of these ducks is so hopelessly confused that we now combine all Mallards, Mottled Ducks, hybrids/backcrosses, and unknowns into a single total, which this season numbered 7987 individuals. This season’s St. Petersburg CBC tallied 112 Mallards, 250 Mallard × Mottled Duck backcrosses, 48 unknowns (“Muddled Ducks”), and zero Mottled Ducks. Urban CBCs in central and southern Florida that report dozens or hundreds of Mottled Ducks and few or no backcrosses or unknowns are likely providing erroneous data.

Some observers have opined that Northern Bobwhites are staging a comeback despite relentless suburban/urban sprawl. This season, 192 individuals were found on 21 counts. However, 78 of these came from the inaugural Kissimmee Prairie/DeLuca count; other double-digit totals were from Zellwood–Mount Dora (15), Alafia Banks (14), West Pasco (12), and Tallahassee (10). Wild Turkeys numbered 1585 individuals on 44 counts, with 164 at Ichetucknee–Santa Fe–O’Leno, 103 at Avon Park AF Range, and 100 at Melrose. Exotic fowl totals were 233 Indian Peafowl on 12 counts (with 98 at Kendall Area and 55 at Cocoa), 100 Red Junglefowl on five (including 78 at Key West), and 50 Helmeted Guineafowl on two counts (28 at Dade County and 22 at Brooksville, where not reported previously). The vagrant American Flamingo present at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge since November 2018 was tallied on its fourth CBC, while the feral flamingo flock at Hialeah Race Track (on the Dade County CBC) totaled 174 individuals. Rock Pigeons numbered 8664 individuals on 62 counts. White-crowned Pigeons totaled 115 individuals on 11 counts, with 42 at Crocodile Lake NWR and 28 at Long Pine Key. Numbers of Eurasian Collared-Doves continue to see-saw in their decade-long decline, with 4160 individuals found on 68 counts (3788, 4513, and 3301 individuals the previous three seasons). Two Mangrove Cuckoos graced Sanibel–Captiva. A Smooth-billed Ani was at Homestead, and two Groove-billed Anis were tallied at Port St. Joe.

Single Lesser Nighthawks were at Homestead and Long Pine Key, with one unidentified nighthawk count-week at West Palm Beach. Of 41 Eastern Whip-poor-wills on 20 CBCs, eight were at Gainesville and six at Homestead. Trios of Chuck-will’s-widows were found at Kendall Area and West Palm Beach, with singles on three other counts. For the sixth consecutive year, a small flock of Vaux’s Swifts wintered at Gainesville, with two tallied on the CBC. Florida’s 384 hummingbirds comprised 364 Ruby-throated (with 18 at Dade County, 16 at Fort Lauderdale 14 at Sarasota, 9 each at Fort Pierce and Naples, and a staggering 129 at Kendall Area!), single Rufous at Clermont, Homestead, Jackson County, and Sarasota, and 16 either not identified to species or not documented. Of Florida’s 585 Clapper Rails, 391 on seven counts were along the Atlantic coast, and 194 on 19 counts were along the Gulf coast. Purple Gallinules numbered 363 on 30 counts, with 86 at Emeralda–Sunnyhill, 44 at Lakeland, and 33 at Kissimmee Valley. Double-digit totals for the state’s 76 Purple Swamphens on 10 counts were 22 at West Palm Beach, 15 at Fort Lauderdale, and 10 at STA5–Clewiston. No Black Rails were reported this season. Limpkins declined his past season (with 2181 and 2265 the past two seasons), numbering 1559 individuals on 53 counts, including 389 at Gainesville and 110 at Sarasota. Florida’s 7043 Sandhill Cranes were found on 52 counts, with 1300 at Gainesville (8000 during the 121st count) and 500 each at Clermont and Melrose. Single Whooping Cranes—long-living survivors of an unsuccessful reintroduction program that ended in 2008—were found at Gainesville and Myakka River SP.

There were 179 Black-necked Stilts on five counts, and 662 American Avocets on 11; totals of the latter species included 230 at Cedar Key, 205 at Alafia Banks, and 124 at Estero Bay. American Oystercatchers totaled 1504 individuals statewide, with Cedar Key producing a majority of these, with 850; 218 others were at Panacea with another 134 at St. Augustine. Quite rare in Florida during winter, single American Golden-Plovers were photographed at Fort De Soto (count-week) and West Palm Beach. Cumulative totals of small plovers were 106 Snowy on nine counts, 122 Wilson’s on 15, 3502 Semipalmated on 35, and 260 Piping on 15; hotspots for the latter species were Fort De Soto (78), North Pinellas (62), and Panacea (36). Florida’s 50 Whimbrels were found on 11 CBCs, with double-digit totals from Matanzas (13), Cedar Key (12), and Coot Bay–Everglades NP (11). Single Long-billed Curlews graced Alafia Banks and Cedar Key. There were 325 Marbled Godwits on 13 counts, among these 101 at Panacea, 60 at Cedar Key, 56 at Fort De Soto, and 42 at St. Petersburg. Red Knots numbered 2098 individuals on 19 counts, including 1050 at Fort De Soto, 295 at Cedar Key, 183 at Sanibel–Captiva, 101 at Ponce Inlet, and 100 at Cocoa. Purple Sandpiper was missed this season. Of the 34 American Woodcocks found on 14 counts, Gainesville accounted for 14 individuals while the other CBCs accounted for one to three each. A Red Phalarope photographed on the Melrose CBC may represent the first inland record in Florida during winter.

Daytona Beach tallied one Pomarine Jaeger and one Parasitic Jaeger, both count-week, while another Parasitic was at Cocoa. An unwary Black-headed Gull, present for weeks, was photographed on the Cocoa count. The only Franklin’s Gull found was at Bradenton (count-week). Many Great Black-backed Gulls and (especially) Lesser Black-backed Gulls in southern Florida have not been documented during the past several seasons; compilers, please improve this lapse for the 123rd season. With that caveat in mind, 52 Great Black-backed were reported on 11 counts statewide (with the highest total dubiously reported in the Florida Keys). Of the 766 Lesser Black-backed Gulls reported on 31 counts, 350 were at Cocoa—more than 4x the number of Herring Gulls! No Gull-billed Terns were found this season. Always an identification concern during winter, 27 Common Terns were photographed or well-described on seven counts: 11 at Sarasota, five at Bradenton, four at Sanibel–Captiva, three at St. Petersburg, two at Fort De Soto, and singles at Apalachicola–St. Vincent NWR and Merritt Island NWR. There were 2528 Forster’s Terns on 48 counts. Black Skimmers totaled 7102 individuals on 31 counts, including 975 at Cedar Key, 800 at Naples, 625 at St. Petersburg, 600 each at Fort De Soto and Sarasota, and 550 at North Pinellas.

The only Red-throated Loon was at Daytona Beach (count-week). Common Loons were down this season (with 1405, 1317, and 786 birds the past three seasons), numbering 621 individuals on 31 counts; Choctawhatchee Bay’s 157 individuals provided the only triple-digit total. Excellent details were provided for a Great Shearwater at Fort De Soto (count-week). Among the 822 Magnificent Frigatebirds found on 28 counts were 250 at Dry Tortugas NP and 183 at Ten Thousand Islands. Dry Tortugas NP accounted for all 34 Masked Boobys and 11 of the Brown Boobys. Biscayne NP supplied 22 other Brown Boobys. Triple-digit totals of the 785 Northern Gannets found on 26 counts came from Daytona Beach (325), Merritt Island NWR (160), and St. Augustine (110). A Great Cormorant at Myakka River SP was enjoyed by hundreds of birders over the following weeks. No Neotropic Cormorants were reported. Double-crested Cormorants were found on every CBC except Kissimmee Prairie/DeLuca. There were 12,961 American White Pelicans on 56 counts, and 14,485 Brown Pelicans on 55, including 78 of the latter inland at Lakeland. Storks and wading birds totaled 139,138 individuals, among these 4007 Wood Storks, 256 “Great White Herons” (including 215 at Coot Bay–Everglades N.P.), 139 Reddish Egrets, 67,182 White Ibises, 10,054 Glossy Ibises, and 1333 Roseate Spoonbills. Two White-faced Ibises were at Lake City.

There were 21,355 Black Vultures on 79 counts, and 41,010 Turkey Vultures on 81.

Selected diurnal raptors included 4460 Ospreys on all counts excepting Melrose (probably an accidental omission), 1549 Bald Eagles on 73, and 4049 Red-shouldered Hawks on 79. Seventeen (!) White-tailed Kites were tallied: five at STA5–Clewiston, four each at Homestead and Kendall Area, two at Long Pine Key, and singles each at Avon Park AF Range and Kissimmee Prairie/DeLuca. A Golden Eagle was adequately described at Avon Park AF Range. Highest counts of the state’s 186 Snail Kites on 15 counts were 119 at Gainesville, 31 at Kissimmee Valley, and 14 at Ten Thousand Islands. A color-marked Snail Kite (banded as a nestling at Lake Okeechobee in April 2021) discovered at Aripeka–Bayport provided the first for that count. Sharp-shinned Hawks, once the dominant Accipiter in Florida, totaled 86 individuals on 47 counts, while Cooper’s Hawks numbered 246 individuals on 68 CBCs. Short-tailed Hawks numbered 104 individuals on 27 counts, with 22 at Kendall Area, 15 at Homestead, 10 at Dade County, seven at Key West, and four each at Naples and Peace River. Ten Swainson’s Hawks were at Homestead, with another at Lower Keys. Totals for Florida’s five typical owl species were 35 Barn Owls on 14 counts; 291 Eastern Screech-Owls on 53; 280 Great Horned Owls on 56; 104 Burrowing Owls on 10; and 458 Barred Owls on 55. Belted Kingfishers were found on every CBC, with a statewide total of 2297 individuals; the three highest counts were Ten Thousand Islands (139), Gainesville (72), and St. Augustine (65).

Red-headed Woodpeckers numbered 284 individuals on 40 counts, including 30 each at Ichetucknee–Santa Fe–O’Leno and Myakka River SP, 28 at Brooksville, and 22 at St. Marks. Dryobates woodpecker totals were 2474 Downy on 75 counts, 23 Hairy on 13, and 65 Red-cockaded on 10. Northern Flickers numbered 425 individuals on 60 counts. Statewide caracara and falcon totals were 99 Crested Caracaras on 16 counts, 2194 American Kestrels on all 82, 88 Merlins on 44, and 66 Peregrine Falcons on 32. Twenty-five CBCs reported at least one of the 15 psittacid species found this season; among these were 1050 Monk Parakeets on 22 counts, 1803 Nanday Parakeets on 16, and 414 Mitred Parakeets on two. “Non-countable” species include two Rose-ringed Parakeets at Naples, 210 Yellow-chevroned Parakeets on three counts in Miami-Dade County, Orange-winged Parrots at Kendall Area (100) and Dade County (8), 137 Red-masked Parakeets on three counts (including 125 at Kendall Area), and 73 White-eyed Parakeets on two (68 at Dade County and five at Fort Lauderdale).

Fifteen Least Flycatchers were found on eight counts, comprising five at Homestead, two each at Kendall Area, West Palm Beach, and Zellwood–Mount Dora, and singles at Fort Lauderdale, Gainesville, Long Pine Key, and Sarasota. Remarkably, single Say’s Phoebes were discovered on CBCs at Avon Park AF Range and East Pasco; the latter persisted into mid-February 2022 and was seen by dozens of birders. Vermilion Flycatcher graced seven counts: Choctawhatchee Bay, Gainesville, Jacksonville, Kissimmee Prairie/DeLuca, St. Marks, Tallahassee, and Zellwood–Mount Dora. Single Ash-throated Flycatchers were found at Choctawhatchee Bay, East Pasco, Gainesville, Jackson County, and Zellwood–Mount Dora, with others count-week at Homestead and Jacksonville. Great Crested Flycatchers totaled 286 individuals on 37 counts mostly in the southern third of the peninsula, with 45 at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, 36 at Fakahatchee, 31 at Long Pine Key, and 29 at Ten Thousand Islands. The Homestead CBC furnished six Brown-crested Flycatchers, three Tropical Kingbirds, and one Cassin’s Kingbird! Another Tropical Kingbird was at STA5–Clewiston, where regular for many years. Of Florida’s 31 Scissor-tailed Flycatchers, 25 were at Homestead, with duos each at Alafia Banks and Key West, and singles each at Lakeland and Peace River. Sixty-nine Western Kingbirds were found on 12 counts, among these 29 at Homestead, 16 far north at St. Augustine, and five at Lake Wales. Good details were provided for a Bell’s Vireos at Long Pine Key. Of Florida’s 66 Yellow-throated Vireos on 11 counts, 38 were at Kendall Area, nine at Homestead, five each at Dade County and Fort Lauderdale, two each at Crocodile Lake NWR and St. Petersburg, and singles each at Boca Raton, Clermont, Key West, Long Pine Key, and Matanzas. The highest counts for the 1737 Loggerhead Shrikes on 69 counts were 166 at Peace River, 116 at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, and 95 at Homestead. Florida Scrub-Jays numbered 292 individuals on 17 counts, led by 86 at Merritt Island NWR, 60 at South Brevard, 40 at Cocoa, and 32 at Emeralda–Sunnyhill. There were 10,283 American Crows on 64 counts, and 51,297 Fish Crows on 69. Parid totals were 2680 Carolina Chickadees on 40 counts, and 4264 Tufted Titmice on 54. A single Horned Lark was at Jackson County. One Purple Martin had returned to Sarasota in the time for the CBC on 1 January. A Barn Swallow was documented at Homestead, and Cave Swallows were found at Homestead (13) and Kendall Area (8).

Just two Red-whiskered Bulbuls were tallied at Kendall Area. Kinglet totals were 59 Golden-crowned on eight counts and 2630 Ruby-crowned on 57. Single Red-breasted Nuthatches were at Choctawhatchee Bay, Jacksonville, and Pensacola. Fourteen White-breasted Nuthatches were at Tallahassee, with another at St. Marks. Brown-headed Nuthatches totaled 572 individuals on 36 counts, with 92 at Panacea, 56 at Apalachicola Bay–St. Vincent NWR, 43 at West Pasco, 38 at Avon Park AF Range, 37 at Fakahatchee, and 32 at Pensacola. Single Brown Creepers enlivened Gainesville, Jackson County, St. Marks, and Tallahassee. Blue-gray Gnatcatchers, found on every Florida CBC except Dry Tortugas NP, totaled 11,593 individuals, among these 750 at Kendall Area, 700 at Gainesville, 675 at Lakeland, and 470 at Sarasota. Winter Wrens were at Jacksonville and Tallahassee. There were 53 Common Mynas on four counts, 12 Common Hill Mynas at Kendall Area, and 36,824 European Starlings on 73. Eastern Bluebirds totaled 4368 individuals on 52 counts, with 340 at Bay County, 300 at Melrose, 295 at Pensacola, and 275 at Gainesville. A Wood Thrush at Coot Bay–Everglades NP was the only report. Of the 13,336 American Robins on 55 counts, 2200 at Cedar Key, 2000 at South Brevard, and 1500 at Ponce Inlet represented the only four-digit totals. Cedar Waxwings totaled 2335 on 44 counts; highest totals were 215 at Jackson County, 180 at Matanzas, 150 at Clermont, and 148 at Aripeka–Bayport. Fifty-one Scaly-breasted Munias were found: 45 at Kendall Area, four at Pensacola, and single escapees or releases at Long Pine Key and West Pasco. There were 1817 House Sparrows on 61 counts, including 205 at Kendall Area, 150 at Sarasota, 122 at Bay County, and 110 at Dade County. One Sprague’s Pipit was at its usual wintering site at Apalachicola Bay–St. Vincent NWR. House Finches numbered 1031 individuals on 51 counts, with 164 at Pensacola, 106 at Choctawhatchee Bay, and 104 at Gainesville. Eighteen Purple Finches at Bay County, and two Pine Siskins at Gainesville were the only CBC report for each. There were 794 American Goldfinches on 53 counts, among these 64 at Ichetucknee–Santa Fe–O’Leno, 61 at St. Marks, 58 at Gainesville, and 54 at Tallahassee.

Rarest of the 18 species of sparrows found on CBCs were a Clay-colored Sparrow at Econlockhatchee and two Dark-eyed Juncos at St. Marks. No LeConte’s Sparrows were reported. Of the 33 Seaside Sparrows on 10 CBCs, 29 were on eight counts along the Gulf coast south to West Pasco, and three were on two counts along the Atlantic coast south to St. Augustine. Henslow’s Sparrows were at Gainesville (2) and Aripeka–Bayport and Melrose (one each). Totals of “sharp-tailed sparrows” were 29 Nelson’s on nine counts, 18 Saltmarsh on five, and 12 not identified to species. Lincoln’s Sparrows were found at Long Pine Key (5), Kissimmee Valley (2), and Homestead and North Pinellas (singles each). Swamp Sparrows numbered 1634 on 59 counts, with 230 at Gainesville, 135 at Zellwood–Mount Dora, 105 at North Pinellas, and 74 at Melrose.

Ten Yellow-breasted Chats were found: five at Long Pine Key, and singles at Fort Pierce, Gainesville, Homestead, West Palm Beach, and Zellwood–Mount Dora. Eastern Meadowlarks numbered 1931 individuals on 60 counts, among these 470 at Kissimmee Prairie/De Luca—the national high for the 122nd season—195 at STA5–Clewiston, 100 at Long Pine Key, and 99 at Gainesville. Yellow-headed Blackbirds enlivened Bradenton, Sarasota, and Venice–Englewood. Of Florida’s 381 Rusty Blackbirds, 330 were at St. Marks, 28 at Gainesville, 18 at Jackson County, three at Jacksonville, and two at Cocoa. No Brewer’s Blackbirds were reported this season. Grackle totals were 45,661 Common on 79 counts and 25,462 Boat-tailed on 73. A pale-eyed female Boat-tailed Grackle, either alabamensis or torreyi, was tallied at Aripeka–Bayport; it was discovered in December 2013 and has been seen nearly annually since then! Nine Bronzed Cowbirds were at Kendall Area, with another at Sarasota. There were 11,270 Brown-headed Cowbirds on 58 counts, with 5800 at Lake City and 1115 at Bay County. The sole Bullock’s Oriole was at Kendall Area. Spot-breasted Orioles numbered 15 on five counts: five at Kendall Area, four at Dade County, three at West Palm Beach, two at Fort Lauderdale, and one at Boca Raton. Of the state’s 71 Baltimore Orioles on 15 counts, 33 were at Gainesville, 10 at Ichetucknee–Santa Fe–O’Leno, and six at Tallahassee.

This season, 24 species of New World warblers were accepted. Rarest were a Swainson’s Warbler at Kendall Area, a Black-throated Gray Warbler at Homestead, and single Tennessee Warblers at Kendall Area and Matanzas. Louisiana Waterthrushes were at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, Dade County, and Fakahatchee. Five Worm-eating Warblers were at Kendall Area, with singles at Homestead and West Palm Beach. Single Nashville Warblers were found at Homestead, Kendall Area, Sarasota, and Wekiva River. Two Wilson’s Warblers were at Gainesville, with another at Kendall Area. Five New World warblers exceeded 1000 individuals statewide: 29,821 Yellow-rumped on 76 counts, 22,735 Palm on all 82 counts; 7610 Pine on 73; 3453 Common Yellowthroats on 77; and 1295 Black-and-white on 73. Kendall Area rules supreme over other Florida CBCs in the number of less-common wintering New World warblers. Consider these totals from the 122nd season: 31 Ovenbirds, 145 Black-and-white Warblers, 65 American Redstarts, 25 Cape May Warblers, 190 Northern Parulas, and 13 Magnolia, 50 Black-throated Blue, 93 Yellow-throated, 160 Prairie, and 20 Black-throated Green warblers! Summer Tanagers totaled 42 on 23 counts, including seven at Dade County, four at Kendall Area, and three each at Crystal River and Homestead. Western Tanagers were photographed at Gainesville (count-week) and St. Augustine, while others were detailed at Jacksonville and Kendall Area. Northern Cardinals were tallied on every CBC except at Dry Tortugas NP, with 7996 counted; highest totals were 800 at Gainesville, 400 at Ichetucknee–Santa Fe–O’Leno, and 300 at Melrose. Rose-breasted Grosbeaks were photographed at Alafia Banks and Kendall Area. Blue Grosbeaks were at Homestead (1) and Kendall Area (2). Indigo Buntings totaled 155 individuals on 25 counts, among these 38 at Bradenton, 20 at Sarasota, 12 each at Boca Raton and Homestead, and 10 each at Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach. Painted Buntings numbered 541 individuals on 43 counts, with 82 at Kendall Area, 58 at West Palm Beach, 46 at Homestead, 41 at Stuart, and 33 at Fort Pierce.

For the thirteenth year, Bruce Anderson reviewed most of the ~135 documentation forms received from compilers. Following Bruce’s review, I searched eBird for photographs of rare species that were found on CBCs but for which compilers did not submit documentation to us. I “rescued” 38 records via photographs posted to eBird that would have otherwise been deleted from the CBC database for lack of details. Compilers, please submit documentation for all rare birds on your CBCs! I cannot guarantee that I will search eBird data annually to “rescue” undocumented rarities found on Florida CBCs. Ultimately, Bruce and I deleted undocumented reports of 32 extremely rare or often-misidentified species from 22 counts; these deleted reports represent 0.33 percent of all CBC sightings from this season. Three species were deleted from each of three CBCs, two species were deleted from each of five counts, and 13 counts each had one species deleted. Species deleted from Florida’s CBCs were Snow Goose, Common Merganser (two individuals), Great Cormorant (69 individuals!), Broad-winged Hawk, Willet (inland), Great Black-backed Gull, Sooty Tern, Burrowing Owl, Western Kingbird (from two counts), Northern Shrike (two individuals—there is no Florida record), Bell’s Vireo, Yellow-throated Vireo (two individuals), Northern Rough-winged Swallow (22 individuals), Purple Martin, Barn Swallow (four individuals), Carolina Chickadee, Tufted Titmouse (out of range), Red-breasted Nuthatch (from two counts, one reporting 84 individuals), White-breasted Nuthatch (eight individuals), Winter Wren, Henslow’s Sparrow, LeConte’s Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow (from two counts), Lincoln’s Sparrow, Worm-eating Warbler, Tennessee Warbler, Magnolia Warbler, Black-throated Blue Warbler (four individuals), and Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Additionally, Bruce and I appended 14 other sightings with the “Details Desired” editorial code, and 26 others—primarily for Mottled Duck totals—with the “Questionable Number” code.

Bruce and I appreciate the efforts of all of Florida’s CBC compilers and participants. We especially thank the compilers of the following counts for their care and attention to detail: Bill Boeringer (Kendall Area), David Bowman (Tampa), Charlie Ewell (Fort Myers), Charlie Fisher (Alafia Banks), Mitchell Harris (Cocoa), Sue Killeen (Matanzas), Emily Kless (Naples), Andy Kratter (Gainesville), Belinda Perry (Myakka River SP), Brian Rapoza (Coot Bay–Everglades National Park and Dade County), Carlos Sanchez (Homestead), Chuck Weber (West Palm Beach), and Stu Wilson (Sarasota). BP thanks Valeri P