Christmas Bird Count Bibliography

Hundreds of studies by scientists around the world have put CBC data to use

Christmas Bird Count Bibliography

Hundreds of studies by scientists around the world have put CBC data to use

The data collected by Christmas Bird Count participants over the years provide a wealth of information to researchers interested in the long-term study of early winter bird populations across North America. The Bibliography below illustrates the value of the work that CBC observers do - as embraced by ornithologists and conservationists. The following list is only the beginning, as we rely on researchers to report their publications to us.

To date over 300 peer-reviewed articles have resulted from analysis done with Christmas Bird Count data. Beyond the items listed here, CBC data has been used by U.S. federal agencies as an important basis for making decisions about birds. 

We have classified the papers into categories to give a sense of what you might find when reading the paper. The categories are as follows: Community Ecology and Biogeography, Distribution, Methods, Participation, and Population Dynamics. If you find a paper that seems misclassified, please contact us at the address below.

The historical results of over 120 years of the Christmas Bird Count can be viewed by clicking on the  CBC Results on the CBC home page. Audubon is constantly assessing and improving the quality of the CBC database and aspires to maintain the highest data integrity possible given current ornithological thinking.

We ask that we be sent or notified of any published papers, documents, or media events that pertain to scientific findings using CBC data, so that we can update the CBC Bibliography. Please contact Geoffrey S. LeBaron, Director of the Christmas Bird Count with notification of your papers:

Geoffrey S. LeBaron
Christmas Bird Count Director

Citation Formats

When referencing the Christmas Bird Count (CBC) database, please use one (or more if necessary) of the following three formats.

  1. For CBC data obtained directly from the CBC database through the Christmas Bird Count website, please cite using the following format:
    National Audubon Society (2020). The Christmas Bird Count Historical Results [Online]. Available http://www.christmasbirdcount.org [your access date]
  2. For CBC data obtained from the historical printed results of the CBC as published in the periodicals "Audubon Field Notes," "American Birds," and "Field Notes," the following is best:
    National Audubon Society. Year. The YY Christmas Bird Count. <Am. Birds (or Aud. Field Notes or Field Notes) XX [Volume](X[Number]):aaa-bbb[page numbers] (where "XX" is Volume, “X” is Number of the periodical, "YY" is the number of the Count, and “aaa” and “bbb” are page numbers).
    Example: National Audubon Society. 1993. The 94th Christmas Bird Count. Field Notes 48(4): 464-465.
  3. For CBC data obtained from annual publications of the CBC after 1998 (Vol 51 No 2 of Field Notes), the proper citation is as follows: National Audubon Society. Year. The YY Christmas Bird Count (American Birds XX): aaa-bbb. (YY=year; XX=volume number; aaa-bbb=page numbers). Example: National Audubon Society. 2004. The 104th Christmas Bird Count (American Birds 58): 122-124.

CBC Bibliography


  • Airola, D.A., S. Hampton, and T. Manolis.  2007.  Effects of West Nile Virus on sensitive species in the Lower Sacramento Valley, California:  An evaluation using Christmas Bird Counts.  Central Valley Bird Club Bulletin 10: 1-22. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Aldrich, J.W., and J.S. Weske. 1978. Origin and evolution of the eastern House Finch population. Auk 95:528-536. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Alexander, W.C. 1983. Differential sex Distributions of wintering diving ducks (Athyini) in North America. Am. Birds 37:26-29. Distribution.
  • Anderson, D.W., and I.T. Anderson. 1976. Distribution and status of Brown Pelicans in the California Current. Am. Birds 30:3-12. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Andrews, R.W., and C.E. Bock. 1979. A Christmas Bird Count analysis of bluebird abundance patterns and population trends. Sialia 1:10-14. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Anon. 1950. Preliminary bibliography of articles based on Christmas Bird Counts. Aud. Field Notes 4:187. Methods.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1967. Considering the Christmas census. Aud. Field Notes 21:39-42. Methods.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1971. Winter ranges of North American birds – a project. Am. Birds 25:514. Distribution.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1971. Am. Birds 25:817. Methods.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1972. The winter range mapping project. Am. Birds 26:537-546. Distribution.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1972. On the art of estimating numbers. Am. Birds 26:706-712. Methods.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1972. Early winter range mapping project--progress report. Am. Birds 26:827. Distribution.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1976. Antique CBC experiment. Am. Birds 30:634-636. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1981. The Christmas Bird Count: constructing an "ideal model". In C.J. Ralph & J.M. Scott, eds., Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies Avian Biol. 6:30-33. Methods.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1982. "Ideal model" Christmas Bird Counts: a start in 1982-83. Am. Birds 36:146-148. Methods.
  • Arbib, R.S. 1983. The ideal model Christmas Bird Count: 1982-3, the experimental year. Am. Birds 37:366-368. Methods.
  • Arbib, R.S., and C.E. Bock. 1981. Appendix II. Report of working group for the revision of Christmas Bird Count procedures. In C.J. Ralph & J.M. Scott, eds., Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies Avian Biol. 6:579. Methods.
  • Armstrong, E.R. and D.L.G. Noakes. 1983. Wintering biology of Mourning Doves, Zenaida macroura, in Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 97(4):434-438. Comm. Ecol/Biogeo.


  • Ball, S.C. 1947. Migration of Red-breasted Nuthatches in Gaspe. Ecol. Monogr. 17:501-533. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bayer, R.D., and J. Krabbe. 1984. CBC analysis: Comparison of coastal Christmas Bird Counts. Oregon Birds 10(3-4):115-125. Distribution.
  • Beedy, E. C. and E. R. Pandolfino. 2013. Birds of the Sierra Nevada: Their natural history, status, and distribution. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, CA.Distribution.
  • Beddall, B.G. 1963. Range expansion of the cardinal and other birds in the northeastern states. Wilson Bull. 75:140-158. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bednarz, J.C., J.W. Dawson, and W.H. Whaley. 1988. Harris’ Hawk. Pp. 71-82 in R.L. Glinsk, B.G. Pendleton, M.B. Moss, et al., eds. Proceedings of the Southwest Raptor Management Symposium and Workshop, Natl. Wildl. Fed. Sci. Tech. Ser. No. 11, Washington, D.C. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Berry, J. 1992. A selective analysis of data from the Newburyport Christmas Bird Count. Bird Observer 20:314-322. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bildstein, K.L. 1979. Trends in the number of diurnal raptors seen on recent North and South Carolina Christmas Bird Counts. Chat 43(4):82-85. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bielefeldt, J. 1972. The relative productivity of foot and car travel on Christmas Bird Counts. Passenger Pigeon 34(4):163-166. Methods.
  • Bielefeldt, J. 1974. Patterns of Blue Jay abundance on Wisconsin Christmas Counts, 1954-1972. Passenger Pigeon 36(3):98-109. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bjorklund, C.F. 1991. Black Rosy-Finch sighting on Big Muddy CBC. Blue Jay 49(3):137. Distribution.
  • Bock, C.E. 1979. Joseph Grinnell and the Christmas Bird Count. Am. Birds 33:693-694. Distribution.
  • Bock, C.E. 1980. Winter bird population trends: Scientific evaluation of Christmas Bird Count data. Atlantic Naturalist 33:28-31. Methods.
  • Bock, C.E. 1982. Factors influencing winter Distribution and abundance of Townsend's Solitaire. Wilson Bull. 94:297-302. Distribution.
  • Bock, C.E. 1982. Synchronous fluctuations in Christmas Bird Counts of Common Redpolls and Pinyon Jays. Auk 99:382-383. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bock, C.E. 1984. Geographical correlates of abundance vs. rarity in some North American winter landbirds. Auk 101:266-273. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E. 1987. Abundance relationships of some Arizona landbirds: a matter of scale? Ecology 68(1):124-129. Distribution.
  • Bock, C.E., and J.H. Bock. 1974. Geographical ecology of the Acorn Woodpecker: abundance versus diversity of resources. Am. Nat. 108:694-698. Distribution.
  • Bock, C.E., J.H. Bock, and L.W. Lepthien. 1977. Abundance patterns of some bird species wintering on the Great Plains of the USA. J. Biogeogr. 4:101-110. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1972. Winter eruptions of Red-breasted Nuthatches in North America. Am. Birds 26:558-561. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1974. Winter patterns of bird species diversity and abundance in the United States and southern Canada. Am. Birds 28:556-562. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1975. Patterns of bird species diversity revealed by Christmas Counts versus Breeding Bird Surveys. West. Birds 6:95-100. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1975. A Christmas Count analysis of woodpecker abundance in the United States. Wilson Bull. 87:355-366. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1976. Growth of the eastern House Finch population, 1962-1971. Am. Birds 30:791-792. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1976. Population growth in the Cattle Egret. Auk 93:164-166. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1976. Changing winter Distribution and abundance of the Blue Jay, 1962-1971. Am. Midl. Nat. 96:232-236. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1976. A Christmas Count analysis of the Fringillidae. Bird-banding 47:264-272. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1976. Geographical ecology of the common species of Buteo and Parabuteo wintering in North America. Condor 78:554-557. Distribution.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1976. Synchronous eruptions of boreal seed-eating birds. Am. Nat. 110:559-571. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bock, C.E., and L.W. Lepthien. 1977. Distribution and abundance of the Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) in North America. Great Basin Nat. 35:269-272; 36:111. Distribution.
  • Bock, C.E., J.B. Mitton, and L.W. Lepthien. 1978. Winter biogeography of North American Fringillidae (Aves): a numerical analysis. Syst. Zool. 27:411-420. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and R.B. Smith. 1971. An analysis of Colorado Christmas Counts. Am. Birds 25:945-947. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and R.E. Ricklefs. 1983. Range size and local abundance of some North American songbirds: a positive correlation. Am. Nat. 122:295-299. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and T.L. Root. 1981. The Christmas Bird Count and avian ecology. In C.J. Ralph & J.M. Scott, eds., Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies Avian Biol. 6:17-23. Methods.
  • Bock, C.E., and T.L. Root. 1981. Winter abundance patterns of landbirds in the United States and southern Canada. Am. Birds 35:891-897. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Bock, C.E., and R.S. Smith. 1971. An analysis of Colorado Christmas Counts. Am. Birds 25:945-947. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bonney, R.E. 1979. Wintering Peregrine Falcon populations in the eastern United States 1940-1975: a Christmas Count analysis. Am. Birds 33:695-697. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Bosakowski, T. 1986. Winter population trends of the House Finch and ecologically similar species in northeastern New Jersey. Am. Birds 40:1105-1110. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Boxall, P.C. and B.L. McFarlane. 1993. Human dimensions of Christmas Bird Counts: Implications for nonconsumptive wildlife recreation programs. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 21(4):390-396. Participation.
  • Bradley, R.A., and D.W. Bradley. 1983. Co-occurring groups of wintering birds in the lowlands of southern California. Auk 100:491-493. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Brennan, L.A., and M.L. Morrison. 1991. Long-term trends of chickadee populations in western North America. Condor 93:130-137. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Brown, W.H. 1957. Twenty years of Christmas Bird Censuses in Iowa - analysis and criticism. Iowa Bird Life 27:85-91. Methods.
  • Brown, W.H. 1964. Population changes in the Red-shouldered and Red-tailed Hawks. Iowa Bird Life 34:82-88. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Brown, W.H. 1971. Winter population trends in the Red-shouldered Hawk. Am. Birds 25:813-817. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Brown, W.H. 1973. Winter population trends in the Marsh, Cooper's, and Sharp-shinned Hawks. Am. Birds 27:6-7. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Brown, W.H. 1975. Winter population trends in the Bald Eagle. Am. Birds 29:12-14. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Brown, W.H. 1975. Population changes in the Tufted Titmouse and Black-capped Chickadee. Iowa Bird Life 45:97. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Brown, W.H. 1976. Winter population trends in the Black and Turkey Vultures. Am. Birds 30:909-912. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Browning, M.R. 1974. Comments on the winter Distribution of the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) in North America. Am. Birds 28:865-867. Distribution.
  • Buchanan, J.B. 1988. North American Merlin populations: an analysis using Christmas Bird Count data. Am. Birds 42:1178-1180. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Burtt, E.H. Jr. 1986. An Analysis of Physical, Physiological, and Optical Aspects of Avian Coloration with Emphasis on Wood Warblers. Ornith. Monogr. 38:1-126. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Burtt, H.E., and B.P. Burtt. 1982. Reliability of the Christmas Bird Count. Redstart 49(3):90-93. Methods.
  • Bushnell, R. and S. Davis, Sibley Birding: How Much Does Your Big Day Weigh? or Birding With a Calculator, Bird Observer, 2002; 30(2). Methods
  • Butcher, G.S. 1985. Winter population trends of seven North American raptors. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S. 1986. Populations of Black Ducks and Mallards in winter, 1950-1983. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S. 1986. Bird populations in winter and summer: an evaluation of the Christmas Bird Count and a comparison with the Breeding Bird Survey. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S. 1986. Population trend analysis using the Breeding Bird Survey and the Christmas Bird Count. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S. 1987. Populations of Bald Eagles in winter in the contiguous 48 states. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S. 1987. Data that count. The Living Bird Quarterly 6(4):20-23. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S. 1990. [Review of] Atlas of wintering North American birds: An analysis of Christmas Bird Count data. Wilson Bull. 102:189-191. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Butcher, G.S. 1990. Audubon Christmas Bird Counts, pp. 5-13 in J.R. Sauer and S. Droege, eds., Survey Designs and Statistical Methods for the Estimation of Avian Population Trends, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biol. Report 90(1). Methods.
  • Butcher, G.S., M.R. Fuller, L.S. McAllister, and P.H. Geissler. 1990. An evaluation of the Christmas Bird Count for monitoring population trends of selected species. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18:129-134. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S., and J.D. Lowe. 1990. Population trends of twenty species of migratory birds as revealed by Christmas Bird Counts, 1963-87. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Butcher, G.S., and C.E. McCulloch. 1990. Influence of observer effort on the number of individual birds recorded on Christmas Bird Counts, pp. 120-129 in J.R. Sauer and S. Droege, eds., Survey Designs and Statistical Methods for the Estimation of Avian Population Trends, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biol. Report 90(1). Methods.
  • Bystrak, D. 1971. How to prepare a winter range map from Christmas Count data. Am. Birds 25:952-956. Distribution.
  • Bystrak, D., and S.R. Drennan, eds. 1975. Ten new early winter Distribution maps from Christmas Bird Count data. Am. Birds 29:603-611. Distribution.
  • Bystrak, D., C.S. Robbins, S.R. Drennan, and R. Arbib, eds. 1974. Wintering areas of bird species potentially hazardous to aircraft. National Audubon Society, New York. Distribution.


  • Cade, T.J. 1967. Ecological and behavioral aspects of predation by the Northern Shrike. The Living Bird 6:43-86. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Capobianco, P. and S. Davis, Rebound on the Bayou: The Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the Christmas Bird Counts of Louisiana and Mississippi. National Audubon Society. 2008. The 108th Christmas Bird Count (American Birds 62): 24-31. Pop. Dynamics
  • Cartwright, W.J. 1924. The increase of the Starling. Bird-Lore 26:323-326. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Chapman, F.M. 1900. A Christmas bird-census. Bird-Lore 2:192. Methods.
  • Clawson, R.L. 1981. Evaluation of Upland Wildlife Management Practices for Non-game Birds. Project #MO-W-013-R-34(1980)/Study XLI, MO Dept. of Conservation, 42 pp.
  • Clement, R.C. 1966. Audubon Christmas Bird Counts. Aud. Field Notes 20:94-95. Methods.
  • Confer, J.L., T. Kaaret, & L. Jones. 1979. Effort, location, and the Christmas Bird Count tally. Am. Birds 33:690-692. Methods.
  • Cortopassi, A.J., and L.R. Mewaldt. 1965. The circumannual Distribution of White-crowned Sparrows. Bird-banding 36:141-169. Distribution.
  • Crosbie, S. P., W. D. Koenig, K. Reisen, V. L. Kramer, L. Marcus, R. Carney, E. Pandolfino, G. M. Bolen, L. R. Crosbie, D. A. Bell, H. B. Ernest. 2008. Early impact of West Nile virus on the yellow-billed magpie (Pica nuttalli). Auk 125:542-550. Pop. Dynamics.


  • Dance, K.W. 1994. The Pileated Woodpecker in Ontario - Then, Now and Tomorrow. pp 261-268. In Ornithology in Ontario. Edited by M.K. McNicholl and J.L. Cranmer-Byng. Special Publication No. 1. Ontario Field Ornithologists. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Daniels, G.G. 1975. An inquiry into Christmas Bird Count Accipiter reports. Am. Birds 29:634-637. Methods.
  • Davis, D.E. 1937. A cycle in Northern Shrike emigrations. Auk 54:43-49. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, D.E. 1949. Recent emigrations of Northern Shrikes. Auk 66:293. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, D.E. 1957. The existence of cycles. Ecology 38:163-164. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, D.E. 1960. Recent emigrations of Northern Shrikes. Auk 77:347-348. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, D.E. 1974. Emigrations of Northern Shrikes 1959-1970. Auk 91: 821-825. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, D.E. 1976. Endogenous rhythm of population change - an hypothesis. Research in Population Ecology 17:155-163. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, D.E., and M.L. Morrison. 1987. Changes in cyclic patterns of abundance in four avian species. Am. Birds 41:1341-1347. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, J. and L. Williams. 1964. The 1961 irruption of the Clark's Nutcracker in California. Wilson Bull. 76:10-18. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Davis, M. 2000. Christmas Bird Counting – Expect an adventure. Am. Birds 54:27-30. Participation.
  • Davis S.  The Change in Numbers of Wintering Hooded Mergansers (Lophodytes cuculatus) in New England.  Bird Observer 2000;28(3):164-168. Pop. Dynamics
  • Davis, S.  The Increase in Wintering Hooded Mergansers in New England: Some Statistical Inquiries.  North American Birds 2001; 55(4):495-498. Pop. Dynamics
  • Davis S.  The Newport - Westport Christmas Bird Count.  Bird Observer 1994;22(6):297-308. Methods
  • Davis S.  Winter Populations of the House Finch in New England, 1985-1989.  Bird Observer 1991;19,(3):129-132. Pop. Dynamics
  • Davis, S. and P. Capobianco, The Hooded Merganser: A Preliminary Look at Growth in Numbers in the United States as Demonstrated in the Christmas Bird Count Database. National Audubon Society. 2006. The 106th Christmas Bird Count (American Birds 60):27-33. Distribution
  • DeHaven, R.W. 1973. Winter population trends of the Starling in California. Am. Birds 27:836-838. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Dolbeer, R.A., and G.E. Bernhardt. 1986. Early-winter population trends of gulls on western Lake Erie, 1950-1984. Am. Birds 40:1097-1102. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Donahue, M. 1993. A Christmas crossroads of birds and birders. Ill. Audubon 246:2-8.
  • Drennan, S.R. 1981. The Christmas Bird Count: an overlooked and underused sample. In C.J. Ralph & J.M. Scott, eds., Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies Avian Biol. 6:24-29. Methods.
  • Duncan, C.D. 1996. Changes in the winter abundance of Sharp-shinned Hawks in New England. J. Field Ornith. 67:254-262. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Dunn, E.H. 1986. Feeder counts and winter bird population trends. Am. Birds 40:61-66. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Dunn, E.H. 1995. Bias in Christmas Bird Counts for species that visit feeders. Wilson Bull. 107:122-130. Methods.
  • Dunn, E.H., and J.R. Sauer. 1997. Monitoring Canadian bird populations with winter counts, pp. 49-55 in E.H. Dunn, M.D. Cadman, and J.B. Falls, eds., Monitoring Bird Populations: The Canadian Experience. Canadian Wildlife Service, Occasional Paper 95. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Dunning, J.B., and J.H. Brown. 1982. Summer rainfall and winter sparrow densities: a test of the food limitation hypothesis. Auk 99:123-129. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.


  • Edgell, M.C.R. 1984. Trans-hemispheric movements of holarctic Anatidae: the Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope L.) in North America. J. Biogeogr. 11:27-39. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Elliot, J.J., and R.S. Arbib Jr. 1953. Origin and status of the House Finch in eastern North America. Auk 70:31-37. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Elliott, K. 2006. Declining Numbers of Western Screech-Owl in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. British Columbia Birds. 14:2-11. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Elliott, K. H., Elliott, J. E., Wilson, L. K., Jones, I. and Stenerson, K. (2011), Density-dependence in the survival and reproduction of Bald Eagles: Linkages to Chum Salmon. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 75: 1688–1699. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.233 Pop. Dynamics.
  • Enderson, J.H. 1960. A population study of the sparrow hawk in east-central Illinois. Wilson Bull. 72:222-231. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Enderson, J.H. 1965. A breeding and migratory survey of the Peregrine Falcon. Wilson Bull. 77:327-339. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Erskine, A.J. 1993. Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis, status and movements in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 107(1):46-52. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Falk, L.L. 1978. Woodpeckers on Middle Atlantic Region Christmas Counts. Delmarva Ornith. 13(1&2):33-54. Distribution.
  • Falk, L.L. 1979. An examination of observers' weather sensitivity in Christmas Bird Count data. Am. Birds 33:688-689. Methods.
  • Falk, L.L. 1987. Christmas Bird Counts of the Delmarva Peninsula. Delmarva Ornith. 20:56-63. Distribution.
  • Farnsworth, A. 2002. WatchList species as viewed through the Christmas Bird Count database. Am. Birds 56:29-31. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Fazio, V.W., and J.F. Wing. 1984. Validity and reliability of selected Ohio Christmas Bird Counts. Ohio J. Sci. 84(2):1 (abstract). Methods.
  • Ferner, J.W. 1977. The Audubon Christmas Count: A valuable teaching resource. Am. Biol. Teacher 39(9): 533-535, 544. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Ferner, J.W. 1984. The Audubon Christmas Count as a method of monitoring nongame bird populations, pp. 332-341 in W.C. McComb, ed., Proceedings of the Workshop on Management of Nongame Species and Ecological Communities, University of Kentucky, Lexington. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Forsythe, D.M. 1972. Ring-billed and Herring Gull recoveries from South Carolina. J. Field Ornith. 43:276-281. Distribution.
  • Foy, Bernard R., Evidence for Decline in Wintering Dark-eyed Junco (Junco Hyemalis) in New Mexico, New Mexico Ornithological Society Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2012. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Freedman, B., and J.L. Riley. 1980. Population trends of various species of birds wintering in southern Ontario. Ont. Field Biol. 34:49-79. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Fuller, M.R., and J.A. Mosher. 1981. Methods of detecting and counting raptors: a review. In C.J. Ralph and J.M. Scott, eds., Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies Avian Biol. 6:235-246. Methods.


  • Gammon, D.E. and B.A. Maurer. 2002. Evidence for non-uniform dispersal in the biological invasions of two naturalised North American bird species. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(2):155-161. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Ganier, A.F. 1938. Relative abundance of winter birds at Nashville. Migrant 9:89-93. Comm. Ecol./Biogeogr.
  • Garrison, B.A. 1990. Trends in winter abundance and Distribution of Ferruginous Hawks in California. Trans. West. Sect. Wildl. Soc. 26:51-56. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Garrison, B.A. 1993. Distribution and trends in abundance of Rough-legged Hawks wintering in California. J. Field Ornith. 64:566-574. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Graber, R.R., and J.S. Golden. 1960. Hawks and owls: population trends from Illinois Christmas Counts. Ill. Natl. Hist. Survey, Biol. Note 41. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Goodrich, L. J., and S.E. Senner. 1988. Recent trends of wintering great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and two of their avian prey in Pennsylvania. J. Pa. Acad. Sci. 62(3):131-137. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Grinnell, J. 1922. The role of the “accidental.” Auk 39:373-380. Distribution.
  • Grinnell, J. 1937. The designation of birds’ ranges. Auk 44:322-324. Distribution.


  • Haas, F.C. 1987. Recent range expansion and population increase of the Red-bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus) in Pennsylvania. Pa. Birds 1:107. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Hagan, J.M. III. 1993. Decline of the Rufous-sided Towhee in the eastern United States. Auk 110:863-874. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Hall, G.A., H.L. Gibbs, P.R. Grant, L.W. Botsford, and G.S. Butcher. 1988. Effects of the El Nino southern oscillation on terrestrial birds. Acta XIXth Congr. Intl. Ornithol. II:1759-1775. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Hamilton, T.R. 1992. House Finch winter range expansion as documented by Christmas Bird Counts, 1950-1990. Indiana Aud. Q. 70(3):147-153. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Hampton, S., 2012.  Creating an index to analyze Christmas Bird Count data:  An application to West Nile Virus at Putah Creek, California.  American Birds 66: 16-23. Methods.
  • Haney, J.C. 1983. The use of reference species as a technique in evaluating Christmas Bird Count data. Am. Birds 37:363-364. Methods.
  • Hanson, W.C. 1971. The 1966-67 Snowy Owl incursion in southeastern Washington and the Pacific Northwest. Condor 73:114-116. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Harding, J. 1988. Christmas Bird Count compilation made easy: A simple microcomputer spreadsheet. Oregon Birds 14(1):73-75. Methods.
  • Harris, W.C. 1993. Saskatchewan Christmas Mammal Count – 1992. Blue Jay 51(1):52-59. Other species.
  • Hendricks, P., and J.E. Swenson. 1983. Dynamics of the winter Distribution of Rosy Finches, Leucosticte arctoa, in Montana. Can. Field Nat. 97:307-310. Pop. Dynamics.
  • Hess, P. 1992. Red-bellied Woodpecker: 1990 Christmas Bird Count update. Pa. Birds 6(3):106. Distribution.
  • Hickey, J.J. 1955. Letter to the editor. Wilson Bull. 67:144-145. Methods.
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