Audubon scientists created management briefs for 525 refuges managed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Each brief describes how projected changes in a refuge’s climate could affect its bird populations. In addition to describing high-level trends, the briefs list whether the refuge’s climate is stable, worsening, or improving for each current bird species in summer and winter, as well as those species that could potentially colonize or be extirpated from the refuge in both seasons. Finally, each brief includes recommendations for how staff might manage their refuges to prepare birds for the coming changes.

Learn about changes across the National Wildlife Refuge System in the overview brief: PDF

Learn about how this study was conducted in the methodology brief: PDF

State

 

Alabama

Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Watercress Darter National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Alaska

Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Becharof National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Innoko National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Izembek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kenai National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Selawik National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Togiak National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Arizona

Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cibola National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Gila River Waterfowl Management Area PDF

Havasu National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Imperial National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kofa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Arkansas

Bald Knob National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cache River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Overflow National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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California

Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Butte Sink Wildlife Management Area PDF

Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Colusa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Delevan National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grasslands Wildlife Management Area PDF

Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kern National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Marin Islands National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Merced National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Modoc National Wildlife Refuge PDF

North Central Valley Wildlife Management Area PDF

Pixley National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Diego National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Luis National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sutter National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area PDF

Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Willow Creek-Lurline Wildlife Management Area PDF

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Colorado

Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Baca National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Colorado River Wildlife Management Area PDF

Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sangre De Cristo Conservation Area PDF

Two Ponds National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Connecticut

Stewart B. Mckinney National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Delaware

Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Florida

Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Egmont Key National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area PDF

Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

J. N. Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Key West National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Matlacha Pass National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

National Key Deer Refuge PDF

Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pine Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pinellas National Wildlife Refuge PDF

St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge PDF

St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge PDF

St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Georgia

Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Savannah National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tybee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Idaho

Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Camas National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area PDF

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Illinois

Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Emiquon National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Great River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hackmatack National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kankakee National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area PDF

Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Indiana

Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Iowa

Desoto National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Iowa Wetland Management District PDF

Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Kansas

Flint Hills N