Conservation status Range in U.S. may have expanded slightly in recent decades. Vulnerable to loss of habitat in Mexico.
Family Hummingbirds
Habitat Wooded streams in canyons. In its limited range in the U.S., almost always found near flowing water in shady mountain canyons. Inhabits streamside sycamores, pine-oak woods, coniferous forest.
The largest hummingbird breeding in the United States. Its normal range north of Mexico is limited to canyons in a few mountains near the border. Where it occurs, it is usually conspicuous: bold and aggressive, it dominates other hummingbirds, chasing them away from its favored flowers or sugar-water feeders. The blue on the male's throat is not easily seen, but the flashy white tail corners are hard to miss as the bird flies swiftly past or hovers in the shadows.

Feeding Behavior

At flowers, usually feeds while hovering, extending its bill and long tongue deep into the flower. At feeders, may either hover or perch. To catch small insects, may fly out and grab them in midair, or hover to pluck them from foliage; sometimes takes insects from spider webs.


2. White. Incubation is by female only, 17-18 days. Young: Female alone feeds the young. Age of young at first flight is about 24-29 days. May raise up to three broods per year.


Female alone feeds the young. Age of young at first flight is about 24-29 days. May raise up to three broods per year.


Mostly nectar and insects. Takes nectar from flowers. Often feeds heavily on small insects and spiders, and can survive on them in dry seasons when few flowers are blooming. Will also feed on sugar-water mixtures in hummingbird feeders.


Especially during breeding season, males perch at mid-levels in trees and call with repeated monotonous squeak. Nest site varies, may be 1-30 feet above ground, but typically well sheltered from above. May be on branch sheltered by overhanging limb, sometimes on exposed root on undercut stream bank. Also often places nest under eaves of house or under bridge. Nest may be reused, with additions, several times. Nest (built by female) is a compact cup of grasses, moss, plant fibers, spider webs. Outer covering of green moss is unique among North American hummingbird nests.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.

Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

Download Our Bird Guide App


Probably a permanent resident over most of its range in Mexico, but most U.S. birds depart in fall. Sometimes winters at feeders in canyons in Arizona.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon

See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.

Learn more

Songs and Calls

A loud seep, often repeated, uttered in flight as well as when perching.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
Learn more about this sound collection.