|Conservation status||Possibly as many as 250 pairs in United States; vulnerable to disturbance and to loss of habitat.|
|Family||Hawks and Eagles|
|Habitat||Wooded streams. Almost always found near water. In United States, breeds in tall trees (especially cottonwoods) along streams with more or less permanent water flow and with relative lack of human disturbance. In tropics found in wider range of habitats, including lowland rain forest, mountain rivers, coastal mangrove swamps.|
Hunts mostly by watching from low perch, then gliding down to catch prey in talons. Sometimes hunts actively along streams by moving from rock to rock at water's edge, and sometimes wades in shallow water, stirring up prey.
1-2, sometimes 3. White to greenish-white, blotched with brown and lavender. Incubation is by both parents, with female incubating at night and much of day. Young: Female remains at nest almost constantly for first 2 weeks after eggs hatch, and for much of time thereafter. Male hunts and brings food to nest, female feeds it to young. Young leave nest after about 6-7 weeks, move to nearby trees; can fly well at about 10 weeks; adults continue feeding them for a further 5-6 weeks.
Female remains at nest almost constantly for first 2 weeks after eggs hatch, and for much of time thereafter. Male hunts and brings food to nest, female feeds it to young. Young leave nest after about 6-7 weeks, move to nearby trees; can fly well at about 10 weeks; adults continue feeding them for a further 5-6 weeks.
Includes fish, frogs, lizards. Feeds on a wide variety of small creatures, but especially those found in water. In United States, eats mostly fish, frogs, tadpoles, and lizards, plus some small birds, snakes, rodents, insects. In tropics, diet may include many crayfish, crabs, large insects. B
In courtship, pairs soar and dive, calling, with long legs dangling. Near nest site, male may feed female. Nest: In United States, site is in tree in grove along stream, usually in cottonwood or sycamore. Site usually 30-90' above ground. Nest is bulky platform of sticks, lined with green leaves; male brings much material, female adds it to nest.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Non-migratory in most of range, but only a summer visitor in United States, where it arrives mostly in March, departs mostly in September and October.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsShrill whistled screams.
Learn more about this sound collection.