|Conservation status||Numbers probably stable in limited range in United States. May be vulnerable to loss of habitat in Mexico.|
|Family||Chickadees and Titmice|
|Habitat||Conifers in mountains. In limited range in United States, breeds in mountains in open ponderosa pine forest and in higher, denser forests of spruce and Douglas-fir. May range down into pine-oak forest and sycamore groves in winter. Farther south, in Mexico, lives in various habitats from high mountain fir forest down into oak woodlands.|
Forages mostly by hopping among twigs and branches and gleaning food from surface, often hanging upside down to reach underside of branches. Sometimes takes food while hovering, and occasionally catches flying insects in mid-air. May hammer on galls with bill to break them open and pull out insect larvae. Unlike many chickadees, not known to store food.
5-9. White, with reddish brown dots concentrated at larger end. Incubation is by female only, incubation period not well known. Female may cover eggs with nest material when leaving nest. Male feeds female during incubation period. Young: Female broods young at first, while male brings most food; later, both parents feed young. Adult may sweep outside of nest entrance with crushed beetles; chemicals from these insects may help repel predators. Age of young when leaving nest not well known.
Female broods young at first, while male brings most food; later, both parents feed young. Adult may sweep outside of nest entrance with crushed beetles; chemicals from these insects may help repel predators. Age of young when leaving nest not well known.
Mostly insects, probably some seeds. Diet is not well known, but probably consists mostly of insects, including caterpillars, beetles, and others. Probably also eats seeds.
Breeding behavior is not well known. Nest site is in hole in tree, usually 10-40' above ground, sometimes higher; can be just a few inches up in stumps. Adults may enlarge natural cavity, but details poorly known. Also will use nest boxes. Nest (apparently built by female) has foundation of bark fibers and moss, lining of soft moss, animal hair.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Mostly a permanent resident. In Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, some birds move down into lower canyons in winter.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
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Songs and CallsA husky chick-a-dee-dee-dee, huskier and lazier than that of the Mountain Chickadee.
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