|Conservation status||Apparently always has been rare in Texas. In Mexico and Central America, widespread and common, but could be vulnerable to loss of habitat.|
|Habitat||Resaca woodlands, shade trees. In Texas, a rare nesting bird, usually in native woods near oxbow lakes (resacas) or in shade trees in towns. In Mexico and Central America, breeds in many kinds of open woods, mature forest, second growth, edges of clearings. Winters in lowland tropical forest in South America.|
Forages by searching for insects among the foliage, often hovering briefly to pick insects from the undersides of leaves.
Usually 3, sometimes 2. White, with specks of brown. Incubation is by female alone, 13-14 days. Young: Both parents feed the nestlings. Young leave the nest 12-14 days after hatching, but can fly only poorly at this stage.
Both parents feed the nestlings. Young leave the nest 12-14 days after hatching, but can fly only poorly at this stage.
Mostly insects and spiders, some berries. Feeds on a wide variety of insects, including tree crickets and various smooth caterpillars, also many others. Also eats many spiders. Diet includes berries and small fruits, including those of mistletoe, and some seeds, including those of the tropical shrub Clusia.
Details of the breeding behavior have not been well studied. Males sing persistently in spring and summer to defend the nesting territory. Nest: Placed 5-40' above the ground in branch of tree or shrub. Nest (built by female alone) is a neatly built open cup, with its rim woven onto a horizontal forked twig. Nest is made of grass blades, plant fibers, cobwebs, strips of papery bark, the outside often heavily decorated with spiderwebs; lined with fine plant fibers.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Strictly a summer resident in Mexico and Central America, arriving late in spring. A few from western Mexico apparently go the wrong direction in fall, as there are several fall records along the California coast.
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Songs and CallsA series of deliberate, musical phrases, more widely spaced than in song of Red-eyed Vireo.
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