Climate Change Management Briefs for 525 National Wildlife Refuges

How will climate change affect birds in national wildlife refuges? These scientific briefs by Audubon scientists can help refuge managers prepare.

Audubon scientists created management briefs for 525 refuges managed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Each brief describes how projected changes in a refuge’s climate could affect its bird populations. In addition to describing high-level trends, the briefs list whether the refuge’s climate is stable, worsening, or improving for each current bird species in summer and winter, as well as those species that could potentially colonize or be extirpated from the refuge in both seasons. Finally, each brief includes recommendations for how staff might manage their refuges to prepare birds for the coming changes.

Learn about changes across the National Wildlife Refuge System in the overview brief: PDF

Learn about how this study was conducted in the methodology brief: PDF

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State

 

Alabama

Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Watercress Darter National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Alaska

Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Becharof National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Innoko National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Izembek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kenai National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Selawik National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Togiak National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Arizona

Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cibola National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Gila River Waterfowl Management Area PDF

Havasu National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Imperial National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kofa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Arkansas

Bald Knob National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cache River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Overflow National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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California

Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Butte Sink Wildlife Management Area PDF

Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Colusa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Delevan National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grasslands Wildlife Management Area PDF

Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kern National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Marin Islands National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Merced National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Modoc National Wildlife Refuge PDF

North Central Valley Wildlife Management Area PDF

Pixley National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Luis National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sutter National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area PDF

Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Willow Creek-Lurline Wildlife Management Area PDF

Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Diego National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Colorado

Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Baca National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Colorado River Wildlife Management Area PDF

Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sangre De Cristo Conservation Area PDF

Two Ponds National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Connecticut

Stewart B. Mckinney National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Delaware

Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Florida

Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Egmont Key National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area PDF

Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

J. N. Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Key West National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Matlacha Pass National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

National Key Deer Refuge PDF

Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pine Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pinellas National Wildlife Refuge PDF

St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge PDF

St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge PDF

St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Georgia

Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Savannah National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tybee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Idaho

Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Camas National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area PDF

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Illinois

Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Emiquon National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Great River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hackmatack National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kankakee National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area PDF

Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Indiana

Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Iowa

Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Desoto National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Iowa Wetland Management District PDF

Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Kansas

Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Quivira National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Kentucky

Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Louisiana

Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bayou Cocodrie National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bayou Teche National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Black Bayou Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Breton National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Catahoula National Wildlife Refuge PDF

D’Arbonne National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Delta National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grand Cote National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lake Ophelia National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Red River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sabine National Wildlife Refuge PDF

St. Catherine Creek National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Upper Ouachita National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Maine

Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area PDF

Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Maryland

Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Martin National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Patuxent Research Refuge PDF

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Massachusetts

Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Mashpee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Massasoit National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Nomans Land Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Oxbow National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Parker River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Thacher Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Michigan

Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge PDF

Green Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Harbor Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Huron National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Kirtlands Warbler Wildlife Management Area PDF

Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Michigan Wetland Management District PDF

Seney National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Minnesota

Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Big Stone Wetland Management District PDF

Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Detroit Lakes Wetland Management District PDF

Fergus Falls Wetland Management District PDF

Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Litchfield Wetland Management District PDF

Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Minnesota Valley Wetland Management District PDF

Morris Wetland Management District PDF

Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rydell National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tamarac Wetland Management District PDF

Windom Wetland Management District PDF

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Mississippi

Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hillside National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Holt Collier National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Missouri

Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge PDF

Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Mingo National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ozark Cavefish National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pilot Knob National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Montana

Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Benton Lake Wetland Management District PDF

Black Coulee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bowdoin Wetland Management District PDF

Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Charles M. Russell Wetland Management District PDF

Creedman Coulee National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Grass Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Hewitt Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lake Thibadeau National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

National Bison Range PDF

Nine-Pipe National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Northeast Montana Wetland Management District PDF

Northeast Wetland Management District PDF

Northwest Montana Wetland Management District PDF

Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Swan River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ul Bend National Wildlife Refuge PDF

War Horse National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Nebraska

Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge PDF

John W. and Louise Seier National Wildlife Refuge PDF

North Platte National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District PDF

Valentine National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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Nevada

Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Desert National Wildlife Range PDF

Fallon National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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New Hampshire

Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

John Hay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wapack National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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New Jersey

Cape May National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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New Mexico

Grulla National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge PDF

San Andres National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Valle De Oro National Wildlife Refuge PDF

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New York

Amagansett National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Conscience Point National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Elizabeth Alexandra Morton National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Great Thicket National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Lido Beach Wildlife Management Area PDF

Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Oyster Bay National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Seatuck National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Shawangunk Grasslands National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Target Rock National Wildlife Refuge PDF

Wertheim National Wildl