Photo: Rick & Nora Bowers/Vireo

Calliope Hummingbird

Selasphorus calliope

This is the smallest bird in North America, measuring about 3 inches long and weighing about one-tenth of an ounce. Despite its tiny size, it is able to survive cold summer nights at high elevations in the northern Rockies, and some migrate every year from Canada all the way to southern Mexico. In migration it may be overlooked, often feeding at low flowers and avoiding the aggression of larger hummingbirds.
Conservation status Fairly common in its range, but vulnerable to effects of habitat loss.
Family Hummingbirds
Habitat Forest glades, canyons, usually in mountains. Breeds mostly from 4,000 feet up to near treeline. Favors open shrubby areas, especially near streams, and may be most common in second growth several years after fire or logging. Winters mostly in pine-oak woods of mountains in Mexico, and migrants occur both in mountains and lowlands.
This is the smallest bird in North America, measuring about 3 inches long and weighing about one-tenth of an ounce. Despite its tiny size, it is able to survive cold summer nights at high elevations in the northern Rockies, and some migrate every year from Canada all the way to southern Mexico. In migration it may be overlooked, often feeding at low flowers and avoiding the aggression of larger hummingbirds.
Photo Gallery
  • adult male
  • adult female
  • adult male
  • Juvenile male
  • adult male
  • adult female
Feeding Behavior

Often visits flowers growing within inches of the ground. At flowers, usually feeds while hovering, extending its bill deep into the center of the flower. At feeders, may either hover or perch. To catch small insects, may fly out and capture them in midair, or hover to pluck them from foliage.


Eggs

2. White. Incubation is by female only, 15-16 days. Young: Female feeds the young, and broods them to keep them warm between feeding bouts and at night. Age of young at first flight about 18-21 days.


Young

Female feeds the young, and broods them to keep them warm between feeding bouts and at night. Age of young at first flight about 18-21 days.

Diet

Mostly nectar and insects. Takes nectar from flowers, and will feed on tiny insects as well. Will also feed on sugar-water mixtures in hummingbird feeders.


Nesting

Male establishes breeding territory and drives other males away. Male performs a U-shaped courtship flight display, rising 30-100 feet and diving steeply, with popping and zinging sound at bottom of dive, then rising again. Male also hovers before female with throat feathers flared out. Nest site is usually in a pine or other conifer, sometimes in deciduous shrub. Usually 6-40 feet up, can be much higher. Sometimes built on base of old pine cone. Nest (built by female) is a compact cup of plant down, moss, bark fibers, spider webs, with the outside camouflaged with bits of lichen.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.

Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

Migration

Moves northwest in early spring, mostly through Pacific lowlands, and moves southeast in very early fall (beginning in July) mostly through Rocky Mountain region. Adult males migrate slightly earlier than females or young at both seasons.

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Migration

Moves northwest in early spring, mostly through Pacific lowlands, and moves southeast in very early fall (beginning in July) mostly through Rocky Mountain region. Adult males migrate slightly earlier than females or young at both seasons.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon
Songs and Calls
A high-pitched tsew.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
Learn more about this sound collection.

How climate change could affect this bird's range

In the broadest and most detailed study of its kind, Audubon scientists have used hundreds of thousands of citizen-science observations and sophisticated climate models to predict how birds in the U.S. and Canada will react to climate change.

Learn more

Read more: climate.audubon.org
Hummingbirds

Calliope Hummingbird

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season.

More on reading these maps.

Each map is a visual guide to where a particular bird species may find the climate conditions it needs to survive in the future. We call this the bird’s “climatic range.”

The colors indicate the season in which the bird may find suitable conditions— blue for winter, yellow for summer (breeding), and green for where they overlap (indicating their presence year-round).

The darker the shaded area, the more likely it is the bird species will find suitable climate conditions to survive there.

The outline of the approximate current range for each season remains fixed in each frame, allowing you to compare how the range will expand, contract, or shift in the future.

The first frame of the animation shows where the bird can find a suitable climate today (based on data from 2000). The next three frames predict where this bird’s suitable climate may shift in the future—one frame each for 2020, 2050, and 2080.

You can play or pause the animation with the orange button in the lower left, or select an individual frame to study by clicking on its year.

The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season. More on reading these maps.
Winter
Summer

Winter Range
Summer Range
Both Seasons
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