|Conservation status||Still reasonably common, but has been declining for many years. Foxes and raccoons (introduced for fur production) and rats (introduced accidentally) have wiped out or reduced nesting populations on many islands, in both North America and northeast Asia.|
|Family||Auks, Murres, Puffins|
|Habitat||Open ocean, sounds, rarely salt bays. Mostly on cool waters out of sight of land, sometimes concentrating over edge of continental shelf; may feed close to shore, especially in straits or near islands where tidal currents concentrate food near surface. Nests in burrows on islands with good cover of grass, shrubs, trees.|
Forages while swimming underwater. Probably catches all food within about 60' of surface.
2, rarely 1. Pale buff or olive, spotted with brown. Incubation is by both parents, 29-37 days. Young: Not fed in nest. 1-3 days after eggs hatch, parents come to nest at night and call near entrance; young leave nest and scramble down to sea (often over 1000' through dense vegetation). Parents and young recognize each other by voice, reunite at sea and swim away from colony. Young are fed by parents until fully grown, at least 4 weeks.
Not fed in nest. 1-3 days after eggs hatch, parents come to nest at night and call near entrance; young leave nest and scramble down to sea (often over 1000' through dense vegetation). Parents and young recognize each other by voice, reunite at sea and swim away from colony. Young are fed by parents until fully grown, at least 4 weeks.
Crustaceans, fish. Diet not well known, but euphausiid shrimp appears to be primary food for much of year, mainly those about 1" in length. At some seasons eats mostly very small fish, including sand lance, capelin, herring, smelt, saury, rockfishes, and shiner perch.
Breeds in colonies on islands; active at colonies mostly at night. Males come ashore after dark and sing from high perches, such as tree branches or stumps, simple song of repeated chirps. Nest site is burrow in ground under trees or grass, usually on slope and close to sea. Burrow (excavated by both sexes) usually 2-5' long; nest chamber at end lined with twigs, grass, leaves.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Some remain all year off southern Alaska, others move south to waters off California in winter. Disperses widely at sea after breeding. Of North American auks, this one is most likely to appear far inland. Records exist for many states and provinces east to Quebec and New York, south to Nevada and New Mexico. A few such records occur virtually every year, most in October or November.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
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Songs and CallsLow, shrill whistling notes.
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