|Conservation status||Recent surveys indicate declines in population. May be vulnerable to loss of nesting sites and to disturbance during breeding season.|
|Habitat||Streams, lakes, bays, coasts; nests in banks. During winter and migration, may be found in almost any waterside habitat, including the edges of small streams and ponds, large rivers and lakes, marshes, estuaries, and rocky coastlines; seems to require only clear water for fishing. During breeding season, more restricted to areas with suitable dirt banks for nesting holes.|
Forages by plunging headfirst into water, capturing fish near surface with bill. Watches for fish from branch, wire, rock, or other perch above water, or may hover above water before diving. Bones, scales, and other indigestible parts of prey are coughed up later as pellets.
6-7, sometimes 5-8. White. Incubation is by both sexes, 22-24 days. Female incubates at night, with male taking over early in morning; male may or may not do less of incubation than female. Young: Both parents feed young, at first giving them partially digested fish, later whole fish. Male may make more feeding visits than female. Young depart from nest 27-29 days after hatching, are fed by parents for about another 3 weeks. 1 brood per year, perhaps sometimes 2 in south.
Both parents feed young, at first giving them partially digested fish, later whole fish. Male may make more feeding visits than female. Young depart from nest 27-29 days after hatching, are fed by parents for about another 3 weeks. 1 brood per year, perhaps sometimes 2 in south.
Mostly small fish. Typically feeds on small fish, usually those less than 4-5" long. Also eats crayfish, frogs, tadpoles, aquatic insects. Occasionally takes prey away from water, including small mammals, young birds, lizards. Reported to eat berries at times.
In courtship display, male brings fish, feeds it to female. Nest site is in steep or vertical dirt bank, usually with higher content of sand than clay. Both sexes take part in digging a long horizontal tunnel with nest chamber at end. Tunnel is generally 3-6' long and usually slopes upward from entrance. Rarely nests in tree cavity. Usually no lining added to nest chamber, but debris and undigested fish bones and scales may accumulate.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
Learn more about these drawings.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
Download Our Bird Guide App
A few may overwinter as far north as water remains open, including southern coast of Alaska. Some from North America migrate as far south as Central America, West Indies, northern South America. Migrants may tend to follow rivers, lakeshores, coastlines.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsLoud, penetrating rattle, given on the wing and when perched.
Learn more about this sound collection.
How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Belted Kingfisher
Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future.
Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.
Climate threats facing the Belted Kingfisher
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.