|Conservation status||Has been expanding breeding range toward the north in recent decades. Surveys suggest that overall population is stable or even increasing slightly.|
|Family||Cardinals, Grosbeaks and Buntings|
|Habitat||Brush, roadsides, streamside thickets. Breeds in dense low growth in semi-open country, including woodland edges, brushy fields, young second-growth woods, hedgerows. In the Southwest, most common near water, in streamside thickets and mesquite groves. Outside the breeding season, often in open weedy fields. Native forms in Central America inhabit dry tropical forest and edges of other woods.|
Forages mostly on the ground, also in low vegetation. Picks up items from ground and from plants; will hover while taking insects from foliage, and will make short flights to catch insects in mid-air. Except when nesting, often forages in flocks.
3-5, usually 4. Pale blue to bluish white, usually unmarked, rarely with brown spots. Incubation is by female only, 11-12 days. Male may feed female during incubation. Cowbirds often lay eggs in nests of this species. Young: Nestlings are fed mostly by the female. Young leave the nest about 9-10 days after hatching. Male may feed young more after they fledge, at least if female is starting second nest.
Nestlings are fed mostly by the female. Young leave the nest about 9-10 days after hatching. Male may feed young more after they fledge, at least if female is starting second nest.
Mostly insects and seeds. Eats many insects, especially in summer, including grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, cicadas, praying mantises, and others, also spiders and snails. Also eats many seeds (may be majority of diet at some seasons), including those of weeds and grass, also waste grain.
Male sings to defend nesting territory. Nesting activity may last late in summer in some areas. Nest: Placed low in shrubs, trees, or vines, usually 3-10' above the ground, rarely up to 25' high. Nest (built by female) is compact open cup of twigs, weeds, rootlets, leaves, strips of bark; often adds odd materials such as snakeskin or pieces of paper, string, or rags. Nest lined with fine grass, rootlets, animal hair.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Eastern birds probably migrate across Gulf of Mexico, while those farther west travel south overland. Strays appear north of breeding range in both spring and fall.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsSweet, jumbled warble. Also a metallic klink.
Learn more about this sound collection.