|Conservation status||Overall population probably stable, perhaps increasing slightly; range has expanded recently to include southern Alaska.|
|Family||Gulls and Terns|
|Habitat||Large lakes, coastal waters, beaches, bays. Found on both fresh and salt water, favoring protected waters such as bays, lagoons, rivers, lakes, not usually foraging over open sea. Inland, more likely on large lakes than on small ponds. Nests on open ground on islands, coasts.|
When foraging flies high over water, hovers, then plunges to catch fish below surface. Less often flies low, dips down to catch prey at water's surface. May steal food from other birds.
1-3, rarely 4 or 5. Pale buff, spotted with brown or black. Incubation is by both parents (female may do more), 20-22 days. Young: May leave nest a few days after hatching, move to nearby shore. If colony is undisturbed, young may remain at nest until ready to fly. Both parents bring food for young. Age at first flight about 30-35 days; young may remain with parents as long as 8 months.
May leave nest a few days after hatching, move to nearby shore. If colony is undisturbed, young may remain at nest until ready to fly. Both parents bring food for young. Age at first flight about 30-35 days; young may remain with parents as long as 8 months.
Mostly fish. Often concentrates on a few abundant fish species in a given locale (for example, shiner perch on California coast, alewife on Great Lakes). Also eats insects, sometimes eggs or young of other birds.
First breeds at age of 3 years. Nests in colonies, sometimes in isolated pairs. Male may fly low over colony carrying fish; female follows. On ground, courtship feeding (male feeds female). Nest site is on bare ground, among driftwood or debris, perhaps sometimes on floating mats of dead vegetation. Nest (built by both sexes) is shallow depression, sometimes with rim or lining of debris.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
Download Our Bird Guide App
Inland breeders move to coast and southward for winter. Some winter south to West Indies, northern South America.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsLow harsh kraa. Also a shorter kow.
Learn more about this sound collection.