|Conservation status||Common and widespread, but surveys suggest declining populations in recent decades.|
|Habitat||Conifers in high mountains; lower levels in winter. Breeds mostly in mountain forests of conifers, especially spruce and fir, also in pine and Douglas-fir in some areas and sometimes in pinyon-juniper woods. Often at very high elevations, near treeline in mountains. Winters in mountain forests of conifers, sometimes in open woods of lower valleys.|
Does much foraging up in trees, especially when ground is snow-covered; also feeds in weedy growth and on ground. Except when nesting, often forages in small flocks.
4-5, sometimes 3-6. Bluish green, with brown and black spots often concentrated at larger end. Incubation is by female only, about 12-14 days. Male often feeds female during incubation. Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 2 weeks after hatching, and parents and young may promptly leave nesting area.
Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 2 weeks after hatching, and parents and young may promptly leave nesting area.
Mostly seeds, buds, berries. Feeds mainly on vegetable material. Buds of various trees often staple items in diet, also eats seeds of many trees (especially conifers) and some weed seeds. Feeds on berries and small fruits when available. Also eats some insects, perhaps mainly in summer.
Numbers breeding in an area often change from one year to the next, possibly in response to food supplies. May nest in small colonies. Male often does not defend much of a nesting territory, instead simply staying close to female and driving away rival males. Nest: Usually placed in large conifer, commonly about 30-40' above ground, may be as low as 10' or as high as 80' up; sometimes in aspen or other deciduous tree. Nest (probably built by female) is open cup made of twigs, weeds, rootlets, strips of bark, lined with fine grass, plant fibers, animal hair, sometimes decorated with lichens.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Somewhat nomadic, with numbers present in a given locality often changing from year to year. Irregular in winter occurrence in lowlands, but sometimes wanders well out onto plains.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsSong is a series of warbles, similar to the Purple Finch's but flutier and more varied. Call note, a high pwee-de-lip, is diagnostic.
Learn more about this sound collection.