|Conservation status||Local numbers vary widely, but overall population apparently is holding up well or even increasing.|
|Habitat||Open woodlands, fruiting trees, orchards; in winter, widespread, including towns. Breeding habitat is influenced by availability of fruiting trees and shrubs, often most common in "edge" situations, as along forest edges, streamsides, overgrown fields, edges of swamps, suburban yards. In winter, may be in any wooded or semi-open area where berries are abundant.|
Except when nesting, almost always forages in flocks. May hover briefly while plucking berries or taking insects from foliage. Often flies out to catch insects in mid-air.
3-5, rarely 2-6. Pale gray to bluish gray, finely spotted with brown and black. Incubation is probably by female only, averaging about 12-13 days. Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave the nest about 14-18 days after hatching. 2 broods per year.
Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave the nest about 14-18 days after hatching. 2 broods per year.
Mostly berries and insects. Majority of annual diet is berries and small fruits; feeds on very wide variety of berries, with some important sources including juniper, dogwood, and wild cherries. Also eats some flowers and will drink oozing sap. Eats many insects in summer, including beetles, caterpillars, ants. Young nestlings are fed mostly insects at first, then more berries after a few days.
In many areas, nesting is late, not beginning until mid-summer. Only a small area is defended as territory, so birds may nest near others in small colonies. In courtship, two birds may perch close together, posturing, touching bills, and passing food items back and forth. Nest: Placed in tree, on horizontal limb or in fork, usually 6-20' above the ground but can be lower or much higher (up to 50'). Nest (built by both sexes) is a rather loosely built open cup of grass, weeds, twigs, plant fibers, lined with finer materials such as moss, rootlets, fine grass, hair.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Nomadic, moving about irregularly; both breeding and wintering areas may change from year to year, depending on food supplies. Some may linger south of breeding range into late spring or early summer.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsA thin lisp, tseee.
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