|Conservation status||The species probably increased in numbers during the 1700s and 1800s as forests were cleared and turned into farmland. However, populations generally have been declining in the East in recent decades. The decrease in amount and quality of habitat is the most likely cause.|
|Family||Blackbirds and Orioles|
|Habitat||Open fields and pastures, meadows, prairies. Breeds in natural grasslands, meadows, weedy pastures, also in hayfields and sometimes in fields of other crops. Winters in many kinds of natural and cultivated fields. In the Midwest, tends to prefer taller and lusher grass than Western Meadowlark, but in the Southwest it lives in very arid desert grasslands.|
Forages by walking on the ground, taking insects and seeds from the ground and from low plants. May probe in the soil with its bill. In winter, may forage in flocks.
3-5, sometimes up to 7. White, heavily spotted with brown and purple. Incubation is by female, about 13-15 days. Young: Both parents feed nestlings (but female does more). Young leave nest after 11-12 days, when still unable to fly, and are tended by parents for at least 2 more weeks. 2 broods per year.
Both parents feed nestlings (but female does more). Young leave nest after 11-12 days, when still unable to fly, and are tended by parents for at least 2 more weeks. 2 broods per year.
Mostly insects and seeds. Majority of diet consists of insects, especially in summer, when it eats many grasshoppers, crickets, beetles and their larvae, caterpillars, ants, true bugs, and others; also spiders. Seeds and waste grain make up over one-fourth of annual diet, and are eaten especially in fall and winter.
Male defends nesting territory by singing. In courtship, male faces female, puffs out chest feathers and points bill straight up to show off black "V," spreads tail widely, and flicks wings; he may even jump in the air in this posture. Male may have more than one mate. Nest: Placed on the ground, in areas with dense grass and other low cover, in a small depression in soil. Nest (built by female) is a domed structure with the entrance on the side, made of grass stems interwoven with surrounding growth. Usually has narrow trails or "runways" leading to nest through the grass.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Present all year in most of range, although only small numbers usually remain through winter in North. Migrants arrive rather early in spring and linger late in fall.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsClear, mellow whistle, see-you, see-yeeeer; also a loud rattling alarm note.
Learn more about this sound collection.
How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Eastern Meadowlark
Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future.
Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.
Climate threats facing the Eastern Meadowlark
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.