|Conservation status||Populations may drop after very harsh cold seasons on wintering grounds. Long-term numbers seem healthy. Has expanded breeding range into some new areas in northeast, nesting in planted conifers.|
|Habitat||Mostly conifers; in winter, sometimes other trees. Breeds in dense coniferous forest, especially those of spruce, fir, and hemlock, less often in Douglas-fir or pines. In migration and winter may be found in deciduous trees, but tends to seek out conifers even then, including pine groves and exotic conifers planted in cemeteries and parks.|
Forages very actively in trees and shrubs, mainly in conifers. Hops among branches, often hanging upside down from tips of twigs. Occasionally hovers to glean an insect from foliage or bark; rarely flies out to catch an insect in mid-air. Compared to Ruby-crowned Kinglet, does less hovering and flycatching, more hanging upside down.
8-9, sometimes 5-11. A surprising number of eggs for small size of bird, often arranged in 2 layers in nest. Eggs whitish to pale buff, with brown and gray spots often concentrated toward larger end. Incubation by female only, about 14-15 days. Male may feed female during incubation. Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 14-19 days after hatching.
Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 14-19 days after hatching.
Mostly insects. Feeds on a wide variety of tiny insects, including small beetles, gnats, caterpillars, scale insects, aphids, and many others. Also eats spiders. Diet includes many eggs of insects and spiders. Will feed on oozing sap; rarely feeds on fruit.
Male defends nesting territory by singing. In aggressive encounters with other males, he may lean far forward and down with crown feathers raised, wings and tail flicking while he sings. Nest: Placed in spruce or other conifer, 6-60' up but usually high, averaging about 50' above the ground. Nest is attached to hanging twigs below a horizontal branch, close to trunk, well protected by foliage above. Female builds deep hanging cup of moss, lichens, bark strips, spiderwebs, twigs, leaves, lined with feathers, plant down, rootlets, other soft materials.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Generally migrates late in fall and early in spring. Some on northern Pacific Coast are probably permanent residents.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsThin, wiry, ascending ti-ti-ti, followed by tumbling chatter.
Learn more about this sound collection.