|Conservation status||Surveys show declines in parts of Florida range, but still locally very common there and in Caribbean.|
|Habitat||Roadsides, mangroves, edges. In Florida, breeds in a variety of habitats, from undisturbed mangrove swamps to centers of cities near coast, also in farmland and vacant lots. In the Caribbean, found in a similarly wide range of wooded and open habitats.|
Forages by watching from an exposed perch and then flying out to catch insects in the air. May also hover and take insects or other items from foliage, and sometimes catches prey just above (or at) the surface of the water.
3-4, rarely 5. Pale pink to buff, blotched with brown, lavender, and gray. Details of incubation not well known. Young: Evidently both parents bring food for the nestlings. Development of young and age at first flight are not well known.
Evidently both parents bring food for the nestlings. Development of young and age at first flight are not well known.
Mostly insects, some berries. Feeds on a variety of insects, including beetles, wasps, bees, and many others, with some as large as dragonflies. Also eats small lizards, and has been seen catching hummingbirds in the Caribbean. At some seasons, berries and small fruits may be more than one-fifth of the diet.
Nesting behavior is poorly known. Adults are very active and bold in defense of their nest, even attacking humans who come too close. Nest site is often among branches of coastal mangroves, 4-12' above the water or ground. Also nests in taller trees inland, such as pines or oaks, up to 40' above the ground. In cities, may build nest where wires cross utility poles. Nest is a cup of twigs, grasses, rootlets, lined with finer grass; usually built loosely, so that eggs may even be visible from below.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Only a summer resident in southeastern United States (with a few winter records for Florida). Rarely wanders far to the north of breeding range, mainly in fall.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsA shrill, buzzy pe-cheer-y.
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How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Gray Kingbird
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Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.
Climate threats facing the Gray Kingbird
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.