|Conservation status||May have declined in parts of Texas with loss of streamside habitat. Recently has begun nesting locally in southern Arizona, spreading north from adjacent Mexico.|
|Habitat||Rivers, streams. Always found near water, but sometimes near very small streams with only intermittent pools. Also around edges of ponds and larger rivers. Favors areas where there is dense low growth on the banks, providing low perches close to the water.|
Forages mostly by perching low, typically on an overhanging branch or root 3-6' above the water, sometimes on a rock in mid-stream, watching for small fish swimming close to the surface. When prey is spotted, bird flies down and plunges into water headfirst to take fish in its bill. Seldom hovers before diving.
3-6, usually 5. White. Incubation is by both parents, 19-21 days; female incubates at night, male part of day. Young: Fed by both parents. Young leave nest about 22-26 days after hatching, may be fed by parents for several days thereafter.
Fed by both parents. Young leave nest about 22-26 days after hatching, may be fed by parents for several days thereafter.
Small fish. Feeds on minnows and other small fish, mostly those about 1-2" long. May also take some aquatic insects.
Nesting pair defends territory along stream, maintaining good distance from other pairs. Nest site is in burrow in vertical dirt bank near water. Burrow (probably excavated by both sexes) is usually 2-3' long, 5-8' above the water level, and no more than about 2" in diameter. The entrance to the burrow is usually hidden by overhanging vegetation or roots (in other kingfishers, entrance is usually exposed). At the end of the burrow is a slightly enlarged nest chamber, usually with no nest material added.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
Download Our Bird Guide App
Permanent resident. Sometimes wanders slightly north of range.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for over 450 bird species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsAn insect-like buzz; also low clicking notes.
Learn more about this sound collection.