|Conservation status||Could be vulnerable to loss of habitat with cutting of northwestern forests. Still common within its range.|
|Habitat||Conifer forests; in migration, conifers and deciduous woods. Breeds mostly in moist, dense forests near sea level, especially in forests of Douglas-fir, hemlock, and western redcedar. Also nests in cooler, wetter forests of fir and other trees at higher elevations. In winter found in pine-oak forests of mountains in Mexico, also in oaks and conifers along California coast.|
Forages mainly in the canopy of tall trees, sometimes up to 200' above the ground. Males often forage higher than females. Takes insects from twigs while perching and while hovering, and flies out to catch insects in mid-air. Moves from trunk of tree out to branch tips, then begins again at trunk. Will hang from twigs like a chickadee. In migration and winter, often forages in flocks with other birds.
4-5, sometimes 3. Creamy, with fine brown flecks in wreath at larger end. Incubation is probably by both parents, probably about 12 days. This species apparently is almost never parasitized by cowbirds. Young: Fed by female and possibly by male as well. Young leave the nest 8-10 days after hatching.
Fed by female and possibly by male as well. Young leave the nest 8-10 days after hatching.
Mostly insects. Has been observed feeding on caterpillars, tiny beetles, and flying insects; also small spiders.
Males arrive on the breeding grounds in early May, and establish territories by singing. The first eggs are laid by the first part of June. Nest: Typical site is on horizontal branch, well out from trunk and 20-40' above the ground. Nest is a compact, deep, open cup of fibrous weeds stalks, pine needles, twigs, lichen, moss, cobwebs, and lined with soft material such as soft bark, feathers, and animal hair. Female alone builds nest.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Migrates most commonly north along the Pacific Coast in spring and south through the mountains in fall. Southward migration begins early, with many on the move in August or even late July.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsA series of high notes, somewhat less buzzy than the song of a Townsend's Warbler; recalls Yellow Warbler song in pattern but less emphatic. Call is a soft chup.
Learn more about this sound collection.