Conservation status Limpkin had been hunted almost to extinction in Florida by beginning of 20th century; with legal protection, has made a fair comeback. Probably declining in parts of tropical range.
Family Limpkins
Habitat Fresh swamps, marshes. In Florida, found in open fresh-water marshes, along the shores of ponds and lakes, and in wooded swamps along rivers and near springs; locally in river swamps in Georgia. Throughout most of its tropical range, its habitat and distribution are dictated by the presence of apple snails (Pomacea).
Looking like something between a crane and a rail, this odd wading bird has no close relatives. It is widespread in the American tropics, but enters our area only in Florida and southern Georgia -- only where it can satisfy its dietary requirement for a certain fresh-water snail. Mostly solitary, Limpkins may be overlooked as they stalk about in marshes and swamps; they draw attention with their piercing banshee wails, often heard at dawn or at night.

Feeding Behavior

Forages by walking in shallow water, searching for snails visually, also by probing in mud and among floating vegetation. May feed at night, especially on moonlit nights. Moves to solid ground to remove snail from shell or to pound mussel open. The tip of the bill usually curves slightly to the right, which may help in removing snail from curved shell. The bill also usually has a slight gap just behind the tips of the mandibles, which may help in carrying and manipulating the snails.


Usually 4-8. Olive to buff, blotched with brown and gray. Incubation is by both sexes, but incubation period not well known. Young: Downy young leave the nest within a day after hatching, and follow one or both parents. Probably both parents feed young. Development of young and age at first flight not well known.


Downy young leave the nest within a day after hatching, and follow one or both parents. Probably both parents feed young. Development of young and age at first flight not well known.


Large snails. Eats mostly large apple snails (genus Pomacea). In Florida, will also eat other kinds of snails and mussels; also sometimes insects, crustaceans, worms, frogs, lizards.


Breeding behavior not well known. May nest in loose colonies where food is abundant. Nest site for nest varies; may be on ground near water, in marsh grass just above water, or in shrubs or trees above or near water, up to 20' high or sometimes much higher. Nest is a platform of reeds and grass, lined with finer plant material.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

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In South America, may move around somewhat with wet and dry seasons. Permanent resident in limited range in United States. Strays have very rarely wandered farther north.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon

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Songs and Calls

A loud, wailing krrr-eeeow.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
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How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Limpkin

Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future.

Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.

Climate Threats Near You

Climate threats facing the Limpkin

Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.