|Conservation status||Total population difficult to monitor; probably has declined at some tropical colonies. Although known as a common visitor to Florida since the 1800s, not confirmed breeding there until late 1960s (on Marquesas Keys). At the well-watched Dry Tortugas, did not begin nesting until 1988.|
|Habitat||Oceanic coasts, islands. Occurs over warm waters, usually along coast but also far offshore at times. Also soars inland in coastal areas (for example, crosses isthmus of Panama from one ocean to the other). Strays are rarely seen far inland around fresh water. Nests on islands, usually small islands with dense growth of mangroves or other trees or shrubs.|
Forages in the air, swooping close to water to take items from on or near surface, making very little contact with water. Never swims. Forages in the same way over land, taking prey from beaches without landing. Also feeds by piracy, chasing other birds, forcing them to drop or disgorge their food.
One. White. Incubation is by both sexes, probably 40-50 days. Young: Both parents feed young. Nest is never left unguarded until young are half-grown, as other members of colony will eat eggs or young at unattended nest. Male departs after about 12 weeks, female continues to feed young. Age at first flight 20-24 weeks; female will feed young for additional 16 weeks or more. Total breeding cycle for female thus lasts about a year; most females probably do not breed every year.
Both parents feed young. Nest is never left unguarded until young are half-grown, as other members of colony will eat eggs or young at unattended nest. Male departs after about 12 weeks, female continues to feed young. Age at first flight 20-24 weeks; female will feed young for additional 16 weeks or more. Total breeding cycle for female thus lasts about a year; most females probably do not breed every year.
Mostly fish. Feeds mainly on small fish, also squid, jellyfish, crustaceans. Takes hatchling turtles, young terns and other birds, sometimes eggs. Also scavenges for scraps around fishing boats, docks.
Breeds in colonies, with nests often very close together. Perched males display (often in groups) by inflating throat pouch to huge red balloon, raising bill high, vibrating partially spread wings, swiveling back and forth, and calling. Females flying overhead are attracted to group, choose one male as mate. Nest: Site usually in mangroves, trees, or bushes 2-20' above ground or water, sometimes on ground. Nest (built mostly by female, with materials brought by male) a flimsy platform of sticks.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Apparently not truly migratory. Present year-round in southern Florida; in northern Florida and along Gulf Coast, more common in summer. Nesting colonies are widely dispersed among islands and coasts of tropical America (and very locally off west Africa), but nonbreeders and immatures are seen far from colonies at all seasons. Small numbers (mostly immatures) regularly wander inland in southwest in summer. Rarely wanders north along coasts or far inland.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
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Songs and CallsUsually silent at sea; harsh guttural calls during courtship.
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