|Conservation status||Numbers apparently stable or even increasing in some areas. Adapts to second-growth woods and cut-over areas better than some other warblers.|
|Habitat||Low conifers; in migration, other trees. Breeds most commonly in areas of short young spruce; also in young hemlocks and pines, and in dense understory of taller coniferous forest. During migration may be in any kind of deciduous shrubs or low trees. In winter in tropics, often in second-growth and scrub as well as edges of taller forest.|
forages by hopping along branches, gleaning insects from conifer needles, leaves, and twigs. Takes most insects from underside of vegetation. Sometimes hovers or makes short flights after insects. In summer, males may tend to feed higher than females.
Usually 4, sometimes 3 or 5. White, variably marked with brown, lavender, olive, and gray. Incubation is by female only, 11-13 days. Young: Fed by both parents. May leave nest at age of 8 days, usually 9-10 days. Young can fly at this stage, but may be fed by parents for up to 25 more days. 1 brood per year, perhaps rarely 2.
Fed by both parents. May leave nest at age of 8 days, usually 9-10 days. Young can fly at this stage, but may be fed by parents for up to 25 more days. 1 brood per year, perhaps rarely 2.
mostly insects. In breeding season, eats a variety of insects, including beetles, moth caterpillars, leafhoppers, and aphids; also spiders. May eat many spruce budworms when that insect is at epidemic numbers. Occasionally eats berries during inclement weather when insects may be scarce. Diet in migration and winter poorly known.
Male arrives on breeding grounds before female and establishes territory. Has two song types: one to defend territory against intruding males, other apparently to attract and communicate with mate. Nest site is well hidden in dense low conifer (especially spruce or hemlock), often near trunk on horizontal branch. Usually less than 10' above ground, sometimes up to 30'. Nest is flimsy cup of grasses, weeds, twigs, with lining of fine black rootlets. Both sexes help build nest, but female does most of work.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Migrates at night. Most fly across Gulf of Mexico in spring and fall. Winters in Mexico, Central America, and West Indies, but most common in winter in Yucatan Peninsula. Strays reach west coast in spring and especially in fall.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsWeeta-weeta-weeteo. Call note a tslip.
Learn more about this sound collection.