|Conservation status||Overall populations seem to be stable. Apparently nests are only seldom parasitized by cowbirds.|
|Habitat||Cool, open mixed woods with undergrowth; forest edges, bogs. Breeds in deciduous, coniferous, and streamside woodlands, also bogs and thickets. Favors cedar and spruce bogs in northern part of range, abandoned fields and mountain pastures with saplings and young trees in eastern United States. In the west, breeds in thickets of manzanita and other shrubs near belts of pine and fir.|
Forages mainly in the lower parts of trees in open woodlands and in low thickets at forest edges. Takes insects from the ground, and takes them from foliage while perching or hovering.
Usually 4-5. White, with reddish brown spots concentrated at larger end. Incubation is by both parents (but female does more), 11-12 days. Female is fed on nest by male during incubation. Young: Nestlings are fed by both parents, but mostly by the female. Young leave the nest about 11 days after hatching.
Nestlings are fed by both parents, but mostly by the female. Young leave the nest about 11 days after hatching.
Insects. Adults eat beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, aphids, and other insects, including the eggs and larvae of various types. Nestlings are fed caterpillars, small beetles, flies, and other insects.
Breeding behavior is not well known. On breeding territory, males sing from perches and also sometimes during slow, hovering display flight. Nest: Well-hidden, on the ground in a depression made in club mosses, grass, and ferns, usually under scrubby bushes or saplings. Open cup nest is made of coarse grass, ferns, and strips of bark, rimmed with moss; lined with fine grass, animal hair, or pine needles. Female builds the nest.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Birds from both eastern and western breeding populations winter mainly in Mexico. Unlike many warblers, does not migrate north across Gulf of Mexico in spring; instead, travels around Gulf, then spreads northeastward to easternmost breeding areas.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsA loud, ringing teebit-teebit-teebit, chipper-chipper-chipper-chipper; usually has 2 distinct segments.
Learn more about this sound collection.