|Conservation status||Probably some declines in numbers with loss of habitat, but still widespread and fairly common.|
|Habitat||Forests, conifers, groves. Breeds most commonly in coniferous forest of various kinds, including open pine forest, spruce-fir associations, white cedar swamps; also mixed woods such as pine-oak, spruce-poplar, and others. In some places, breeds in oak woodland or in streamside groves in arid country. Winters in habitats with dense cover, especially groves of conifers.|
Hunts almost entirely at night, mostly by waiting on low perches and then swooping down on prey. Finds its prey both by sound and by sight.
5-6, sometimes 4-7, rarely 3-9. White. Incubation is by female only, 27-29 days. Female remains in nest almost constantly from time first egg is laid; male brings food to her throughout this time. Young: At first, adult male brings all food to nest, female feeds it to young. Female remains with chicks until youngest is about 18 days old; then she may begin to hunt for them also, or may depart. Young leave nest at about 4-5 weeks, remain together near nest and are fed (mostly by male) for at least another 4 weeks. Female may sometimes find another mate and nest a second time in one year.
At first, adult male brings all food to nest, female feeds it to young. Female remains with chicks until youngest is about 18 days old; then she may begin to hunt for them also, or may depart. Young leave nest at about 4-5 weeks, remain together near nest and are fed (mostly by male) for at least another 4 weeks. Female may sometimes find another mate and nest a second time in one year.
Mostly small rodents. Feeds mostly on mice that live in forest, especially deer mice; also many voles. Also eats other mice, shrews, young squirrels, sometimes small birds and large insects. Resident race on the Haida Gwaii islands, British Columbia, may eat crustaceans and insects in intertidal zone.
Early in breeding season, male sings incessantly at night to defend territory and attract a mate. Nest site is in cavity in tree, usually 15-60' above ground. Mostly use abandoned woodpeckers holes, especially those of flickers and Pileated Woodpeckers. Will also use artificial nest boxes. Apparently will not use same site two years in a row.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Some remain all year on breeding range, others move south in autumn. Some western mountain birds may move downhill for winter. Migration is relatively early in spring, late in fall. Migrates at night.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsUsually silent; in late winter and spring utters monotonous series of tooting whistles.
Learn more about this sound collection.