|Conservation status||Concentrations of pesticides from its prey caused widespread failure to reproduce during 1940s-1970s, and species disappeared from much of former breeding range. Has been reintroduced in many temperate areas in North America, and Arctic nesting populations have recovered somewhat also. Current populations appear to be stable or increasing.|
|Habitat||Open country, cliffs (mountains to coast); sometimes cities. Over its wide range, found in wide variety of open habitats, from tundra to desert mountains. Often near water, especially along coast, and migrants may fly far out to sea. Limited by availability of nest sites and prey; thus, it often moves into cities, nesting on building ledges and feeding on pigeons.|
Often hunts by flying very high, then stooping in spectacular dive to strike prey out of the air. Large prey may be knocked out of the air, fed upon on the ground where it falls. Also pursues prey in level flight, after having spotted it from a perch or while flying. May fly very low over ground or sea, taking prey by surprise.
3-4, sometimes 2-5, rarely 6. Whitish to pale reddish-brown, heavily marked with warm brown. Incubation is mostly by female, 32-35 days. Male brings food for female during incubation. Young: Female stays with young at first, while male brings food for her and for young; later, female hunts also. Age of young at first flight 39-49 days.
Female stays with young at first, while male brings food for her and for young; later, female hunts also. Age of young at first flight 39-49 days.
Mostly birds. Feeds on a wide variety of birds. Pigeons are often favored prey around cities, and ducks and shorebirds often taken along coast; known to take prey as large as loons, geese, large gulls, and as small as songbirds. Also eats a few small mammals, seldom insects, rarely carrion.
May mate for life. Territorial and courtship displays include high circling flight by male, spectacular dives and chases by both sexes. Male feeds female. Breeding Peregrines defend the immediate area of the nest from intruders, but hunt over a much larger area. Nest site is usually on cliff ledge, sometimes in hollow of broken-off tree snag or in old stick nest of other large bird in tree. In some areas, may nest on ground on hilltop. Also uses ledges of buildings, bridges, other structures. Some sites may be used for many years. No nest built, eggs laid in simple scrape.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Permanent resident on northwest coast and in some temperate regions; northern breeders are long-distance migrants, many going to South America. Migrants often travel along coastlines and regularly occur well out at sea.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsRasping kack-kack-kack-kack, usually heard at nest; otherwise generally silent.
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How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Peregrine Falcon
Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future.
Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.
Climate threats facing the Peregrine Falcon
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.