At a Glance

This well-named bird is not often seen away from pine trees, especially during the breeding season. More sluggish than most of their relatives, Pine Warblers forage in a rather leisurely way at all levels in the pinewoods, from the ground to the treetops. This species is only a short-distance migrant, and almost the entire population spends the winter within the southern United States. Unlike most warblers, it regularly comes to bird feeders for suet or for other soft foods.
Perching Birds, Wood Warblers
Low Concern
Forests and Woodlands, Shrublands, Savannas, and Thickets
California, Eastern Canada, Florida, Great Lakes, Mid Atlantic, New England, Plains, Rocky Mountains, Southeast, Texas, Western Canada
Direct Flight, Flitter

Range & Identification

Migration & Range Maps

Tends to migrate early in spring and late in fall, and many southern birds may be nonmigratory. Those living on islands in the Caribbean apparently are also permanent residents.


5 1/2" (14 cm). Adults olive above, yellow on chest, with two wing-bars; males have blurry streaks on chest, females plainer. See Yellow-throated Vireo. Fall immatures vary, yellowish to gray. Some resemble fall Blackpoll or Bay-breasted, but have duller wing-bars, no streaks on back, cheek patch shows more contrast.
About the size of a Sparrow
Black, Brown, Green, White, Yellow
Wing Shape
Tail Shape
Notched, Square-tipped

Songs and Calls

Musical and somewhat melancholy, a soft, sweet version of the trill of the Chipping Sparrow.
Call Pattern
Call Type
Chirp/Chip, Trill


Chiefly open pine woods, pine barrens. Usually breeds in open pine woods, especially southern longleaf pine forest, sandy barrens of pitch pine with scrub oak undergrowth, jack-pine barrens, and similar habitats. Also sometimes in cedar or cypress. In winter, occurs in a wider variety of habitats including heavily wooded bottomlands, orchards, thickets, woodland edges.



3-5, usually 4. Off-white, with brown specks toward the large end. Incubation is by both parents, probably about 10 days.


Both parents bring food for nestlings. Young leave the nest at 10 days of age. Pairs may raise 2-3 broods annually.

Feeding Behavior

Does much climbing on tree trunks and will walk on ground to forage for dormant insects or seeds. Feeds deliberately, gleaning insects from foliage, sometimes hanging from needle clusters like a titmouse. Probes in pine cones for insects. In winter in the south, may forage in flocks with Eastern Bluebirds.


Insects, seeds, berries. Largely feeds on insects and spiders; diet includes grasshoppers, caterpillars, moths, beetles, ants, bugs, others. When few insects available, often eats seeds of pine, grass, and weeds, also some berries. Will visit bird feeders for suet and other items.


Males begin singing on breeding territories in early February in the southern part of their range, in late March or early April in the north. Nest sites located toward the ends of limbs of pines or occasionally other trees, usually 30-50' above the ground, can be 8-135' up. Concealed from below by foliage. Nest (built by female) is deep, open cup of weed stalks, grass stems, strips of bark, pine needles, twigs, spiderweb; lined with feathers.

Climate Vulnerability

Conservation Status

Surveys suggest that numbers are stable or perhaps even increasing slightly.

Climate Map

Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect the range of the Pine Warbler. Learn even more in our Audubon’s Survival By Degrees project.

Climate Threats Facing the Pine Warbler

Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.

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