|Conservation status||Far less numerous than historically in some areas, including upper midwest and parts of Atlantic Coast, but current populations thought to be stable in most regions.|
|Family||Hawks and Eagles|
|Habitat||Bottomland woods, wooded streamsides, swamps. In east, nests in deciduous and mixed forest, with tall trees and relatively open understory, often along rivers and swamps. May move into more open habitats in winter. In west, typically in riverside forest or in oak woodland, sometimes in eucalyptus groves. Florida birds may be in pine woods, mangroves.|
Usually hunts by watching from a perch, either within forest or in open, swooping down when it locates prey. Sometimes flies very low in open areas, taking creatures by surprise. May use hearing as well as sight to locate prey.
Usually 3-4, sometimes 2. Pale bluish-white, blotched with brown and lavender. Incubation is mostly by female, roughly 33 days. Male brings food to female at nest, and may take a turn sitting on eggs while female eats. Young: Female remains with young most of time for first 1-3 weeks after they hatch; male brings food, female feeds it to nestlings. Young leave the nest at about 5-7 weeks after hatching, and are fed by parents for another 8-10 weeks.
Female remains with young most of time for first 1-3 weeks after they hatch; male brings food, female feeds it to nestlings. Young leave the nest at about 5-7 weeks after hatching, and are fed by parents for another 8-10 weeks.
Includes small mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds. Diet varies with region and season. Main items often mammals such as voles and chipmunks, at other times frogs and toads; may eat many crayfish in some areas. Also eats snakes, small birds, mice, large insects, occasionally fish, rarely carrion.
In courtship, male displays by flying upward, calling, then diving steeply. Pairs may soar together in circles, calling, high over nesting territory. Nest site is usually in deciduous tree, sometimes in conifer, located in fork of main trunk or at base of branches against trunk, usually 35-65' above ground. Nest (built by both sexes) is platform of sticks and other material, lined with bark, moss, and sprigs of green vegetation. Nest may be reused for more than one season.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Mostly a permanent resident in west and south; northern birds migrate, but do not travel far. Some movement in winter as far south as central Mexico.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsShrill scream, kee-yeeear, with a downward inflection.
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How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Red-shouldered Hawk
Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future.
Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.
Climate threats facing the Red-shouldered Hawk
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.