|Conservation status||Populations declined seriously in late 1800s - early 1900s when eggs were harvested from many colonies for food; made substantial comeback during 20th century. Still vulnerable to loss of nesting sites. Has declined in California since 1950, coinciding with decline in population of Pacific sardine there.|
|Family||Gulls and Terns|
|Habitat||Coasts, sandy beaches, salt bays. Favors warm coastal waters, especially those that are shallow and somewhat protected, as in bays, lagoons, estuaries. Also found well offshore at times, and travels freely between islands in the Caribbean. Usually nests on low-lying sandy islands.|
Forages mostly by hovering over water and plunging to catch prey just below surface. Sometimes flies low, skimming water with bill; occasionally catches flying fish in the air, or dips to water's surface to pick up floating refuse. May steal food from other birds. Sometimes feeds at night.
One, rarely two. Whitish to brown, blotched with reddish-brown. Incubation is by both sexes, 28-35 days, usually 30-31. Young: Within 2-3 days after hatching, young leaves nest and joins others in group called a "creche." Both parents bring food; parents and offspring are able to recognize each other by voice, so that adults feed only their own young. Age at first flight about 4-5 weeks. Young remain with parents for up to 8 months or more, migrating south with them.
Within 2-3 days after hatching, young leaves nest and joins others in group called a "creche." Both parents bring food; parents and offspring are able to recognize each other by voice, so that adults feed only their own young. Age at first flight about 4-5 weeks. Young remain with parents for up to 8 months or more, migrating south with them.
Fish, crustaceans. Feeds mostly on small fish (up to 4" long, sometimes up to 7") and crustaceans, especially crabs. Eats wide variety of small fish, also shrimp, squid. Soft-shelled blue crabs are major items in diet on Atlantic Coast.
Usually first breeds at age of 4 years. Nests in colonies. Courtship involves high spiraling flights by two or more birds. On ground, male presents food to female; both birds bow, strut in circles. Nest site is on ground (usually sandy) in the open. Nest (probably built by both sexes) is a shallow depression, with or without sparse lining of debris.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Present year-round in most of breeding range, scarcer northward in winter. On Atlantic Coast, some wander north of breeding range in late summer. In California, more common in winter than in summer. Some southward migration occurs, as the species reaches Ecuador and Argentina in winter.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsHarsh kee-rare, like Caspian Tern but higher pitched.
Learn more about this sound collection.