Bird GuideKingletsRuby-crowned Kinglet

At a Glance

This tiny bird is often hard to see in summer, when it lives high in tall conifers. In migration and winter, however, it often flits about low in woods and thickets, flicking its wings nervously as it approaches the observer. When it is truly excited (by a potential mate, rival, or predator), the male may erect his ruby-red crown feathers, hidden at other times. The song of the Ruby-crown is jumbled and loud, all out of proportion to the size of the bird.
Category
Kinglets, Perching Birds
Conservation
Low Concern
Habitat
Desert and Arid Habitats, Forests and Woodlands, High Mountains, Saltwater Wetlands, Shrublands, Savannas, and Thickets, Tundra and Boreal Habitats, Urban and Suburban Habitats
Region
Alaska and The North, California, Eastern Canada, Florida, Great Lakes, Mid Atlantic, New England, Northwest, Plains, Rocky Mountains, Southeast, Southwest, Texas, Western Canada
Behavior
Direct Flight, Flitter, Rapid Wingbeats
Population
100.000.000

Range & Identification

Migration & Range Maps

Migrates a little earlier in fall and later in spring than Golden-crowned Kinglet. In many areas, peak migration periods are October and April.

Description

4" (10 cm). Tiny, short-tailed, with wing-flicking action, bold white eye-ring. Wings usually show one strong white wing-bar, with a black bar just behind it. Male's ruby crown patch is raised only in excitement. Empidonax flycatchers are more upright, longer-tailed. Compare to Hutton's Vireo.
Size
About the size of a Sparrow
Color
Black, Gray, Green, Red, White
Wing Shape
Rounded
Tail Shape
Notched, Short, Square-tipped

Songs and Calls

Song an excited musical chattering.
Call Pattern
Complex, Flat, Undulating
Call Type
Buzz, Chirp/Chip, Hi, Whistle

Habitat

Conifers in summer; other trees and brush in winter. Breeds in coniferous forest, including those of spruce, fir, Douglas-fir, and some pine woods. Winters in a wide variety of habitats, mainly in open deciduous woods, also in coniferous and mixed woods, mesquite brush, streamside thickets.

Behavior

Eggs

7-8, sometimes 4-9. In Pacific Northwest, 9-10 eggs, sometimes 7-12, a remarkably large clutch for small size of bird. Eggs whitish to pale buff, with brown spots often concentrated at larger end. Incubation is by female only, about 13-14 days. Male may feed female during incubation. Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 16 days after hatching. 1 brood per year.

Young

Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 16 days after hatching. 1 brood per year.

Feeding Behavior

Forages actively at all levels, from treetops to low brush, examining foliage, twigs, and major limbs for foods. Often hovers while taking items from foliage, and sometimes flies out to catch insects in mid-air. Compared to Golden-crowned Kinglet, does more hovering and flycatching, less hanging on twigs.

Diet

Mostly insects. At all seasons, diet is primarily small insects, the birds concentrating on whatever is most readily available; includes many small beetles, flies, leafhoppers, true bugs, caterpillars, and many others. Also eats spiders and pseudoscorpions; diet includes eggs of insects and spiders. In winter, also eats some berries and seeds. Sometimes takes oozing sap or visits flowers, possibly for nectar.

Nesting

In courtship, male may crouch horizontally, fluttering wings and raising red crown feathers while singing. Nest: Usually in spruce, sometimes in other conifer; nest averages about 40' above ground, can be up to 90', or very low in far northern forest where trees are short. Nest is attached to hanging twigs below a horizontal branch, well protected by foliage above. Female builds deep hanging cup of moss, lichens, bark strips, spiderwebs, twigs, rootlets, and conifer needles, lined with feathers, plant down, animal hair.

Climate Vulnerability

Conservation Status

Populations rise and fall, with many apparently being killed during exceptionally harsh winters. Overall, however, species is widespread and common.

Climate Map

Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect the range of the Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Learn even more in our Audubon’s Survival By Degrees project.

Climate Threats Facing the Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.

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