Conservation status Still widespread and common, but surveys indicate overall declines in population in recent years.
Family New World Sparrows
Habitat Grassy or rocky slopes with sparse low bushes; open pine-oak woods. Habitat varies in different parts of range, but always in brushy areas. In Southwest, usually in rocky areas of foothills and lower canyons, in understory of pine-oak woods, or in chaparral or coastal scrub. On southern Great Plains, found in rocky outcrops with cover of dense grass and scattered bushes.
In dry southwestern hills and canyons, where sparse brush covers the rocky slopes, pairs of Rufous-crowned Sparrows lurk in the thickets. Usually they are easy to overlook; but if they are alarmed, or if members of a pair become separated, they reveal their presence with a harsh nasal call, dear-dear-dear. Although they live in dense cover they are not especially shy if undisturbed, and a birder who sits quietly in their habitat may be able to observe them closely.

Feeding Behavior

Forages mostly while walking or hopping on the ground, but also will feed up in weeds and low bushes. Tends to move slowly, foraging in a limited area. Usually forages in pairs or in family groups.


3-4, sometimes 2-5. Pale bluish-white, unmarked. Incubation is probably by female, but details not well known. Young: Both parents feed the nestlings. Young probably leave the nest after about 8-9 days, before they are able to fly; young may remain with parents for up to several months.


Both parents feed the nestlings. Young probably leave the nest after about 8-9 days, before they are able to fly; young may remain with parents for up to several months.


Mostly insects and seeds. Diet varies with season and locality, but tends to eat more insects in summer, more seeds in winter. Major items in diet may include caterpillars, beetle larvae and adults, grasshoppers, ants, and other insects and spiders. Also eats many seeds of grasses and weeds at all seasons, but especially in winter.


Members of a pair may remain together all year on permanent home range. In spring and summer, male sings to defend nesting territory. Nest site is usually on the ground, typically well hidden at base of bush or grass clump, placed in a slight depression so that rim of nest is near ground level. Occasionally in low shrub, up to 1-3' above ground, especially in eastern part of range. Nest is an open cup made of small twigs, grass, weeds, plant fibers, often with some animal hair in lining.

Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds

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Generally a permanent resident. Thought to retreat from some northern areas of range in winter, but may be simply overlooked at that season.

  • All Seasons - Common
  • All Seasons - Uncommon
  • Breeding - Common
  • Breeding - Uncommon
  • Winter - Common
  • Winter - Uncommon
  • Migration - Common
  • Migration - Uncommon

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Songs and Calls

Song is a rapid, pleasing jumble of notes, recalling that of the House Wren, but with "sparrow quality." Distinctive call is a down-slurred dear dear dear and a thin, plaintive tseeee.
Audio © Lang Elliott, Bob McGuire, Kevin Colver, Martyn Stewart and others.
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