At a Glance
The coniferous forest of the Pacific Northwest is the summer home of Townsend's Warbler. There the sharply marked males sing from high in the spruces and hemlocks; their buzzy songs are quite variable, and some are similar to those of the Black-throated Green Warbler, an eastern relative. Most Townsend's go to Mexico or Central America for the winter, but small numbers remain along the coast north to Oregon, Washington, and even Vancouver Island.
All bird guide text and rangemaps adapted from Lives of North American Birds by Kenn Kaufman© 1996, used by permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Perching Birds, Wood Warblers
Arroyos and Canyons, Forests and Woodlands, High Mountains, Shrublands, Savannas, and Thickets
Alaska and The North, California, Northwest, Plains, Rocky Mountains, Southwest, Texas, Western Canada
Direct Flight, Flitter
Range & Identification
Migration & Range Maps
Migration is spread over a long period in both spring and fall. In the Southwest, migrants occur at all elevations, but most common in the mountains.
4 1/4-5" (11-13 cm). Strong face pattern, with bright yellow surrounding dark cheek. Green back, yellow chest, white wing-bars, streaked sides. Throat black on adult male, mostly yellow on female and young.
About the size of a Robin, About the size of a Sparrow
Black, Green, White, Yellow
Songs and Calls
A rising series of notes, usually with 2 phrases, the first repeated 3 or 4 times, the second once or twice: weazy weazy weazy weazy twea or dee dee dee-de de. Call is a soft chip.
Flat, Rising, Undulating
Buzz, Chirp/Chip, Whistle
Tall conifers, cool fir forests; in winter, also oaks, madrones, laurels. Breeds in tall, dense coniferous forest of the Pacific Northwest, both in the humid coastal belt and in the mountains. In winter in the tropics, found mostly in mountain forests of pine, oak, and alder. Along California coast, winters in oak woods and in conifers. Migrants occur in mountain conifer forests and in streamside trees in lowlands.
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At least 3, commonly 4-5. White with brown marks. Details of incubation not well known; may be incubated by both sexes, estimated at about 12 days.
Nestlings are fed by female and possibly by male. Young leave the nest about 8-10 days after hatching.
Forages mostly in higher parts of trees. Searches actively among twigs for insects, often hovering briefly to take items from foliage. Sometimes flies out to catch flying insects in the air. Except in nesting season, often feeds in mixed flocks with other warblers and other small birds.
Mostly insects. While nesting, eats mainly insects, such as caterpillars, true bugs, beetles, leafhoppers, and many others; also a few spiders, seeds, and plant galls. On tropical wintering grounds, also feeds on some berries and nectar.
Males arrive on breeding grounds in late May, and establish territories by singing. The first eggs are laid by late June. Nest: Placed directly on top of branch, usually towards the ends of horizontal conifer branches, 7'-60' above the ground. Nest (probably built by both sexes) is a large shallow cup of grass stems, mosses, cedar bark, and fir twigs; lined with moss, feathers, and hair.
Still common and widespread.
Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect the range of the Townsend's Warbler. Learn even more in our Audubon’s Survival By Degrees project.
Climate Threats Facing the Townsend's Warbler
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.