|Conservation status||Still common and widespread.|
|Habitat||Tall conifers, cool fir forests; in winter, also oaks, madrones, laurels. Breeds in tall, dense coniferous forest of the Pacific Northwest, both in the humid coastal belt and in the mountains. In winter in the tropics, found mostly in mountain forests of pine, oak, and alder. Along California coast, winters in oak woods and in conifers. Migrants occur in mountain conifer forests and in streamside trees in lowlands.|
Forages mostly in higher parts of trees. Searches actively among twigs for insects, often hovering briefly to take items from foliage. Sometimes flies out to catch flying insects in the air. Except in nesting season, often feeds in mixed flocks with other warblers and other small birds.
At least 3, commonly 4-5. White with brown marks. Details of incubation not well known; may be incubated by both sexes, estimated at about 12 days. Young: Nestlings are fed by female and possibly by male. Young leave the nest about 8-10 days after hatching.
Nestlings are fed by female and possibly by male. Young leave the nest about 8-10 days after hatching.
Mostly insects. While nesting, eats mainly insects, such as caterpillars, true bugs, beetles, leafhoppers, and many others; also a few spiders, seeds, and plant galls. On tropical wintering grounds, also feeds on some berries and nectar.
Males arrive on breeding grounds in late May, and establish territories by singing. The first eggs are laid by late June. Nest: Placed directly on top of branch, usually towards the ends of horizontal conifer branches, 7'-60' above the ground. Nest (probably built by both sexes) is a large shallow cup of grass stems, mosses, cedar bark, and fir twigs; lined with moss, feathers, and hair.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
Download Our Bird Guide App
Migration is spread over a long period in both spring and fall. In the Southwest, migrants occur at all elevations, but most common in the mountains.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsA rising series of notes, usually with 2 phrases, the first repeated 3 or 4 times, the second once or twice: weazy weazy weazy weazy twea or dee dee dee-de de. Call is a soft chip.
Learn more about this sound collection.