Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
Photo: David Gerard/Audubon Photography Awards
|Conservation status||Locally common, and numbers apparently stable, in limited range in United States.|
|Habitat||Canyons, pine-oak woods, oaks, sycamores. Favors habitat with relatively dense, broad-leaved oaks, both in pure stands and in mixed woodland with pines, generally above 5000'. In Arizona canyons, often common in groves of sycamores next to oak woodland.|
Hunts at dusk and through the night. Hunts by watching from a perch and then making short flights out to take prey from foliage or from the ground; may fly back and forth or hover among vegetation to take insects. Captures most prey with feet.
3, sometimes 4. White. Incubation is probably mostly by female, incubation period not well known. Young: Both parents probably bring food for young. Development of young and age at first flight not well known. Parents may feed young for some time after they leave nest.
Both parents probably bring food for young. Development of young and age at first flight not well known. Parents may feed young for some time after they leave nest.
Mostly large insects. Eats many caterpillars, beetles, moths, crickets, katydids, and other insects; also other arthropods, including centipedes and scorpions. Sometimes eats small rodents.
Breeding behavior is not well known. Males defend breeding territory by singing at night, and may vigorously attack intruding males. Members of mated pairs call in duet, also nibble at each other's bills and preen each other's feathers. Nest site is in cavity in tree such as oak or sycamore, either an abandoned woodpecker hole or a natural hollow; nest sites often 10-30' above ground.
Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future.
Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.
Two-thirds of North American bird species are at risk of extinction from climate change. Urge Congress to act now.
Let us send you the latest in bird and conservation news.
Visit your local Audubon center, join a chapter, or help save birds with your state program.