|Conservation status||Local numbers fluctuate, but total population in North America apparently increased from 1970s to 1990s. Has expanded breeding range somewhat eastward during same period.|
|Family||Ibises and Spoonbills|
|Habitat||Fresh marshes, irrigated land, tules. For foraging, favors very shallow water, as in marshes, flooded pastures, irrigated fields. Sometimes in damp meadows with no standing water. Prefers fresh water marsh, but sometimes forages in salt marsh.|
Forages mostly by wading in shallow water, probing in soft mud for food. Also picks insects and other items from surface of water or soil, or from plants above water.
3-4, sometimes 2-5. Clutches of more than 5 probably result from other females laying eggs in nest. Eggs pale blue-green to dark turquoise. Incubation is by both sexes, 17-26 days, usually 21-22 days. Young: Both parents feed young, by regurgitation. At age of 3 weeks, young may move about outside nest; attempt to fly at 4 weeks, can usually fly fairly well at 5 weeks.
Both parents feed young, by regurgitation. At age of 3 weeks, young may move about outside nest; attempt to fly at 4 weeks, can usually fly fairly well at 5 weeks.
Mostly insects, crustaceans, earthworms. Feeds on aquatic insects and their larvae, as well as those living in damp soil. Eats many crayfish and earthworms. Also eats frogs, snails, small fish, leeches, spiders.
Breeds in colonies. Colony sites often shift from year to year with changes in water levels. Nest site is usually in dense marsh growth (such as bulrush or cattails) or in low shrubs or trees above water, sometimes on ground on islands. Nest (built by both sexes) is bulky platform of bulrushes or other plant stems, with depression at center. Material gathered close to nest site, sometimes stolen from vacant nests of other birds.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Present all year in southern California and coastal Texas and Louisiana; migratory elsewhere. Birds from all populations are likely to wander. Strays have reached Atlantic Coast often in recent decades.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsLow croaks and grunts.
Learn more about this sound collection.