|Conservation status||Total population extremely difficult to monitor because of wandering. Numbers may build up when cone crops are good, gradually decline in between.|
|Habitat||Spruce forests, tamaracks. Seldom found away from conifer forests. Breeds mainly in forests having high concentrations of spruce trees, also where tamaracks are common. When not nesting, may also occur in forest of pine, fir, hemlock, juniper, and occasionally in deciduous trees. Isolated race in Hispaniola, West Indies, lives in pine forest.|
Forages mostly by clambering about in conifers to reach the cones. Usually forages in flocks.
2-4, rarely 5. Whitish to pale blue-green, with brown and lavender spots concentrated at larger end. Incubation is by female, probably 12-14 days. Male feeds female during incubation. Young: Female spends much time brooding young at first, while male brings food; later, both parents feed nestlings. Age at which young leave the nest is not well known. Male may care for fledglings while female begins another nesting attempt.
Female spends much time brooding young at first, while male brings food; later, both parents feed nestlings. Age at which young leave the nest is not well known. Male may care for fledglings while female begins another nesting attempt.
Mostly conifer seeds. Feeds mainly on spruce seeds whenever these are available; also favors seeds of tamarack and hemlock, and will eat seeds of many other conifers. Also feeds on buds, weed seeds, berries, insects. Will eat salt. Young are fed mostly regurgitated seeds.
May nest whenever and wherever good cone crops are present in spruce forest, which may be at any time of year, including mid-winter. Usually nests in loose colonies. In courtship, males may chase females in flight; members of pair may perch close together, touching bills, and male may feed female. Nest: Placed on horizontal limb of tree, usually spruce or other conifer, often 10-15' above ground, can be lower or much higher (up to 70'). Nest (built by female, with male occasionally bringing material) is open cup of twigs, weeds, grass, bark strips, lined with rootlets, lichens, moss, plant fibers, hair.
Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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No regular migration, but flocks may travel long distances at any season in search of good cone crops. Apparently travels mostly by day. Although not yet proven, some birds might nest in Alaska one year and eastern Canada another.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsCall like that of the Red Crossbill, but a softer chiff-chiff-chiff. Song a series of sweet canarylike warbles and trills.
Learn more about this sound collection.