|Conservation status||Eastern population was much reduced by hunting in late 19th century, has made good recovery. Loss of habitat has reduced numbers in some areas, but birds tolerate some disturbance of habitat.|
|Habitat||Marshes, wet meadows, mudflats, beaches. Eastern race nests in areas of extensive salt marsh along coast; western race nests inland, around fresh marshes in open country, especially native grassland. In migration and winter, both forms occur on mudflats, tidal estuaries, sandy beaches.|
Forages by walking on shore, in marsh, or in shallow water, probing with its bill in mud or water, or picking items from the surface.
4, rarely 5. Grayish to olive-buff, blotched with brown. Incubation is by both parents, with male incubating at night and sometimes during mid-day, female at other times. Incubation period 22-29 days. Young: Downy young leave nest within a day after hatching, are led by parents to marshy pond areas. Young find all their own food. Female parent departs after 2-3 weeks, leaving male to care for young. Age of young at first flight not well known, probably about 4 weeks.
Downy young leave nest within a day after hatching, are led by parents to marshy pond areas. Young find all their own food. Female parent departs after 2-3 weeks, leaving male to care for young. Age of young at first flight not well known, probably about 4 weeks.
Includes insects, crustaceans, marine worms. Diet varies with location. On inland waters, may feed largely on aquatic insects. On coast, eats many crabs, including fiddler crabs. Also feeds on other crustaceans, small mollusks, sometimes small fish; eats some plant material, including grass, fresh shoots, and seeds.
Often nests in colonies, especially along Atlantic Coast. In breeding season, unpaired males perform flight displays, flying over nesting area with wings fluttering through shallow arc, while giving pill-will-willet calls. Nest site is on ground, usually among dense short grass, sometimes on open ground. Usually well hidden, sometimes conspicuous. Nest is shallow depression with grass bent down to form foundation, lined with finer grasses.
Illustration © David Allen Sibley.
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Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from
Lives of North American Birds
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Willets breeding on the northern Great Plains and the interior of the northwest migrate to coastal regions for the winter. Some of these western birds migrate far to the east, occurring all along the Atlantic Coast in fall and winter.
- All Seasons - Common
- All Seasons - Uncommon
- Breeding - Common
- Breeding - Uncommon
- Winter - Common
- Winter - Uncommon
- Migration - Common
- Migration - Uncommon
See a fully interactive migration map for this species on the Bird Migration Explorer.Learn more
Songs and CallsA loud ringing pill-will-willet and a quieter kuk-kuk-kuk-kuk-kuk.
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How Climate Change Will Reshape the Range of the Willet
Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future.
Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures.
Climate threats facing the Willet
Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too.